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Table 2 Mean difference scores for each group across time and between-group comparisons at 12 weeks and 24 weeks

From: The impact of physical exercises with elements of dance movement therapy on the upper limb grip strength and functional performance of elderly wheelchair users living in nursing homes – a randomized control trial

  Variable BE group (n = 52) PED group (n = 51) CO group (n = 50) PED vs BE PED vs CO BE vs CO BE group (n = 48) PED group (n = 49) CO group (n = 47) PED vs BE PED vs CO BE vs CO
  Baseline—12 weeks
Mean change from baseline (95% CI)
  After 12 weeks   Baseline—24 weeks
Mean change from baseline (95% CI)
After 24 weeks
Main Outcome
  HGS R [kg] 5.54 (4.89; 6.19) 6.77 (6.04; 7.50) −0.77 (−1.06; − 0.48) p = 0,01* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 4.51 (3.84; 5.18) 6.42 (5.72; 7.11) −1.42 (− 1.80; − 1.04) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
  HGS L [kg] 6.60 (6.08; 7.11) 8.05 (7.51; 8.60) −0.40 (− 0.56; − 0.24) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 6.12 (5.64; 6.61) 7.76 (7.22; 8.30) −0.95 (−1.22; − 0.69) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
Secondary Outcomes
Manual dexterity BBT 9.50 (8.85; 10.15) 12.90 (11.62; 14.18) −1.50 (−2.01; −0.99) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 8.88 (8.15; 9.60) 13.00 (11.69; 14.31) −2.49 (−3.15; −1.82) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
Arm strength and endurance ACT 2.56 (1.98; 3.13) 3.71 (3.13; 4.28) −0.52 (−0.86; 0.18) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 2.40 (1.78; 3.01) 3.67 (3.12; 4.22) −0.83 (−1.24; − 0.42) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
Joint mobility Shoulder flexion [degree] 10.38 (7.58; 13.19) 10.88 (7.91; 13.85) −1.80 (−2.94; −0.66) p > 0.999 p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 5.52 (−0.03; 11.07) 9.69 (6.64; 12.75) −3.83 (−5.40; −2.26) p = 0,35 p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
  Shoulder extension [degree] 4.92 (−2.95; 12.80) 9.71 (8.01; 11.40) −2.30 (−3.26; −1.34) p = 0,46 p < 0.001* p = 0,10 3.67 (−5.02; 12.35) 9.49 (7.75; 11.23) −2.21 (−3.57; −0.86) p = 0,33 p < 0.001* p = 0,33
  Shoulder abduction [degree] 11.87 (8.85; 14.89) 14.94 (12.19; 17.69) −3.66 (−4.80; −2.52) p = 0,23 p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 11.42 (8.23; 14.61) 14.67 (11.93; 17.42) −4.02 (−5.23; −2.81) p = 0,21 p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
Lung capacity PEF 39.83 (32.10; 47.56) 56.10 (41.99; 70.21) −21.62 (− 28.59; −14.65) p = 0,07 p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 9.98 (2.90; 17.06) 41.14 (29.23; 53.06) −29.23 (−37.40;- 21.07) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
  FEV1 0.46 (0.36; 0.56) 0.71 (0.59; 0.84) −0.15 (−0.20; −0.11) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 0.23 (0.15; 0.32) 4.15 (−3.44; 11.74) −0.36 (− 0.44; − 0.28)
Flexibility Assessment BS R [cm] 8.13 (7.01; 9.26) 14.82 (11.84; 17.81) −1.20 (−2.23; − 0.17) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 6.81 (5.79; 7.84) 13.51 (10.82; 16.20) −1.79 (−2.96; −0.62) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
BS L [cm] 9.38 (7.71; 1.06) 14.57 (11.38; 17.76) −1.66 (−2.65; −0.67) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 8.23 (6.63; 9.83) 14.00 (10.64; 7.36) −1.34 (− 1.75; −0.93) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
CSR R [cm] 7.90 (5.37; 10.43) 12.98 (10.76; 15.20) −1.12 (− 1.59; −0.65) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 7.63 (4.94; 10.31) 12.82 (10.55; 15.08) −2.17 (−2.72; −1.62) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
CSR L [cm] 7.17 (5.70; 8.64) 11.92 (9.93; 13.91) −0.62 (−1.35; 0.11) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 6.58 (5.17; 7.99) 11.78 (9.79; 13.76) −1.77 (−2.59; −0.94) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
Functional Assessment Katz ADL 0.04 (−0.10; 0.17) 0.18 (0.03; 0.32) 0.00 (−0.14; 0.14) −0.10 (− 0.29; 0.08) 0.12 (− 0.04; 0.28) −0.68 (− 0.89;-0.47) p = 0,25 p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
BI 0.58 (−0.23; .39) 3.92 (2.53; 5.31) −1.40 (−2.59; − 0.21) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p = 0,05* −0.42 (− 1.25; 0.42) 2.96 (1.44; 4.48) −4.26 (−5.93; − 2.58) p < 0.001* p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
Body Balance Assessment BBS 1.90 (1.51; 2.30) 2.59 (2.20; 2.98) −0.40 (− 0.66; − 0.14) p = 0,02* p < 0.001* p < 0.001* 1.88 (1.47; 2.28) 2.39 (1.99; 2.78) −0.66 (− 0.95; − 0.37) p = 0,15 p < 0.001* p < 0.001*
  1. BE basic exercises group; PED physical exercises with elements of dancing group; CO control group; CI confidence interval,; *, statistically significant result (Bonferroni post hoc procedures); HGSR right-hand grip strength; HGSL left-hand grip strength, BBT box and blocks test; ACT arm curl test; BSR back scratch right arm over; BSL back scratch left arm over; CSRR chair sit-and-reach for right leg; CSRL chair sit-and-reach for left leg; PEF Peak expiratory flow; FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s; ADL Activities of Daily Living; BI Barthel Index; BBS Berg Balance Scale. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the differences between groups at the time points post and follow-up