Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: The impact of physical exercises with elements of dance movement therapy on the upper limb grip strength and functional performance of elderly wheelchair users living in nursing homes – a randomized control trial

Variable   BE group (n = 55) PED group (n = 55) CO group (n = 55)  
    Number (%) Mean (SD) p - value
Sociodemographic and clinical
Sex Female   30 (54.55) 36 (65.45) 32 (58.18) 0.495c
  Male   25 (45.45) 19 (34.55) 23 (41.82)
Marital status Married   9 (16.36) 2 (3.64) 6 (10.91) 0.249c
  Widow / widower   25 (45.45) 28 (50.91) 20 (36.36)
  Divorced   9 (16.36) 10 (18.18) 9 (16.36)
  Single   12 (21.82) 15 (27.27) 20 (36.36)  
Education Basic   18 (32.73) 8 (14.55) 24 (43.64) 0.020c*
  Vocational   33 (60.00) 40 (72.73) 26 (47.27)
  Higher   4 (7.27) 7 (12.73) 5 (9.09)
Length of NH residency < 12 moths   6 (10.91) 6 (10.91) 2 (3.64) 0.319c
  1–5 years   15 (27.27) 16 (29.09) 14 (25.45)
  6–10 years   27 (49.09) 26 (47.27) 24 (43.64)
  over 10 years   7 (12.73) 7 (12.73) 15 (27.27)
Length of wheelchair dependence < 12 months   1 (1.82) 1 (1.82) 1 (1.82) 0.332c
  1–5 years   27 (49.09) 27 (49.09) 22 (40.00)
  6–10 years   25 (45.45) 24 (43.64) 23 (41.82)
  over 10 years   2 (3.64) 3 (5.45) 9 (16.36)
Chronic disease Cardiovascular   39 (70.91) 41 (74.55) 37 (67.27) 0.703c
  Musculoskeletal   20 (36.36) 31 (56.36) 32 (58.18) 0.040c*
  Neurological   39 (70.91) 39 (70.91) 35 (63.64) 0.638c
  Pulmonary   15 (27.27) 7 (12.73) 9 (16.36) 0.127c
  Urinary system   16 (29.09) 10 (18.18) 16 (29.09) 0.317c
  Otological   19 (34.55) 15 (27.27) 18 (32.73) 0.694c
  Ophtamological   20 (36.36) 16 (29.09) 22 (40.00) 0.475c
  Digestive system   8 (14.55) 10 (18.18) 7 (12.73) 0.719c
GDS   5.49 (2.60) 5.58 (2.68) 5.44 (2.69) 5.45 (2.46) 0.951b
  No depression 0–5   24 (43.64) 22 (40.00) 29 (52.73) 0.385c
  Moderate depression 6–10   31 (56.36) 33 (60.00) 26 (47.27)
MMSE   24.94 (3.37) 24.67 (3.40) 25.13 (3.38) 25.02 (3.36) 0.763b
  Normal cognition 30–27   18 (32.73) 22 (40.00) 19 (34.55) 0.723c
  Cognitive impairment without dementia 26–24   15 (27.27) 12 (21.82) 18 (32.73)
  Mild cognitive impairment 23–19   22 (40.00) 21 (38.18) 18 (32.73)
Dominant limb Right   47 (85.45) 49 (89.09) 42 (76.36) 0.178c
  Left   8 (14.55) 6 (10.91) 13 (23.64)
  Age [years] 74.35 (7.33) 74.40 (8.09) 74.51 (7.37) 74.13 (6.59) 0.962b
  Body mass [kg] 161.62 (10.13) 73.61 (14.21) 70.76 (14.06) 68.40 (16.27) 0.188b
  Height [cm] 70.92 (14.94) 161.80 (10.91) 161.69 (9.58) 161.38 (10.03) 0.975b
  BMI [kg/m2] 27.02 (4.44) 28.08 (4.38) 26.92 (3.99) 26.07 (4.76) 0.057b
Main Outcome
Muscle strength HGS R [kg] 12.79 (5.43) 12.67 (5.38) 12.74 (5.69) 12.97 (5.30) 0.955b
  HGS L [kg] 11.22 (4.52) 11.14 (4.31) 11.09 (4.53) 11.43 (4.79) 0.916b
Secondary Outcomes
Manual dexterity and BBT [x] 27.42 (9.96) 27.40 (9.55) 27.42 (9.42) 27.45 (11.02) > 0.999b
endurance of the upper limb ACT [x] 9.17 (3.68) 9.11 (3.80) 9.11 (4.01) 9.29 (3.24) 0.957b
Joint mobility Shoulder flexion [degree] 130.48 (20.10) 130.18 (19.34) 131.55 (23.31) 129.73 (17.54) 0.886b
  Shoulder extension [degree] 44.45 (17.29) 43.53 (26.76) 44.91 (9.35) 44.91 (10.16) 0.891b
  Shoulder abduction [degree] 126.94 (18.96) 125.49 (18.45) 126.96 (20.23) 128.36 (18.39) 0.732b
Flexibility Assessment BS R [cm] −37.74 (22.36) −37.58 (20.23) − 37.02 (24.48) − 38.62 (22.55) 0.931b
  BS L [cm] −39.30 (22.96) − 39.27 (21.72) − 39.25 (24.77) −39.38 (22.72) > 0.999b
  CSR R [cm] −12.33 (18.10) −12.35 (19.88) −12.47 (13.93) − 12.18 (20.16) 0.996b
  CSR L [cm] −12.45 (17.52) −12.42 (17.27) − 12.47 (13.49) − 12.45 (21.30) > 0.999b
Lung capacity PEF [l/min] 149.28 (42.97) 151.22 (46.59) 147.05 (43.39) 149.56 (39.29) 0.879b
  FEV1 [l] 1.17 (0.44) 1.10 (0.45) 1.14 (0.43) 1.27 (0.43) 0.105b
Functional Assessment Katz ADL 4.26 (1.10) 4.24 (1.11) 4.27 (1.11) 4.27 (1.09) 0.980b
  BI 54.18 (11.56) 54.09 (12.73) 54.36 (12.06) 54.09 (10.23) 0.990b
Body Balance Assessment BBS 12.41 (5.60) 12.38 (6.34) 12.67 (5.14) 12.18 (5.33) 0.900b
  1. BE basic exercises group; PED physical exercises with elements of dancing group; CO control group; *, statistical significance; c, chi-square test; b, One-way ANOVA, SD standard deviation; GDS Geriatric Depression Scale; MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI body mass index; HGSR right-hand grip strength; HGSL left-hand grip strength, BBT box and blocks test; ACT arm curl test; BSR back scratch right arm over; BSL back scratch left arm over; CSRR chair sit-and-reach for right leg; CSRL, chair sit-and-reach for left leg; PEF Peak expiratory flow; FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s; ADL Activities of Daily Living; BI Barthel Index; BBS Berg Balance Scale;