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Table 3 Multivariable associations of potential associated factors with physical, psychological and social frailty (n = 2289)

From: Factors associated with physical, psychological and social frailty among community-dwelling older persons in Europe: a cross-sectional study of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE)

  Physical frailty
(n = 1243 yes)
Psychological frailty
(n = 896 yes)
Social frailty
(3 items, cutoff = 2)
(n = 673 yes)
OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value
Age (years) 1.06 (1.04–1.08) < 0.001 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.408 1.02 (0.10–1.04) 0.143
Sex (female vs. male) 2.17 (1.73–2.72) < 0.001 1.83 (1.47–2.29) < 0.001 0.91 (0.70–1.20) 0.507
Country   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Spain vs. the Netherlands 1.40 (0.98–1.99) 0.067 1.93 (1.34–2.78) < 0.001 0.53 (0.35–0.81) 0.004
 Greece vs. the Netherlands 2.20 (1.48–3.28) < 0.001 5.35 (3.59–7.95) < 0.001 1.84 (1.17–2.90) 0.009
 Croatia vs. the Netherlands 3.19 (2.24–4.54) < 0.001 3.92 (2.79–5.51) < 0.001 1.33 (0.91–1.94) 0.148
 United Kingdom vs. the Netherlands 1.10 (0.80–1.51) 0.558 1.22 (0.87–1.71) 0.244 0.52 (0.37–0.75) < 0.001
Migration background (yes vs. no) 1.05 (0.72–1.54) 0.792 0.98 (0.69–1.41) 0.922 0.88 (0.57–1.34) 0.550
Education level   < 0.001   0.010   0.037
 Secondary or equivalent vs. primary or less 2.12 (1.42–3.17) < 0.001 1.85 (1.24–2.78) 0.003 1.09 (0.68–1.75) 0.714
 Tertiary or higher vs. primary or less 1.38 (0.96–1.99) 0.086 1.43 (0.98–2.07) 0.063 0.72 (0.47–1.11) 0.135
Household composition (living alone vs. living with others) 0.80 (0.64–0.10) 0.048 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 0.334 15.54 (11.81–20.44) < 0.001
Alcohol risk (yes vs. no) 0.67 (0.54–0.84) 0.001 0.85 (0.67–1.07) 0.158 1.00 (0.76–1.31) 0.971
Physical activity (once a week or less vs. more than once a week) 3.58 (2.81–4.57) < 0.001 2.02 (1.63–2.50) < 0.001 1.51 (1.17–2.00) 0.002
Smoking (yes vs. no) 1.45 (0.99–2.11) 0.055 0.92 (0.63–1.34) 0.669 0.87 (0.57–1.35) 0.541
Multi-morbidity (yes vs. no) 2.09 (1.41–3.08) < 0.001 1.32 (0.90–1.92) 0.155 1.75 (1.06–2.88) 0.028
Medication risk (MRQ-10; scores) 1.35 (1.26–1.44) < 0.001 1.15 (1.08–1.22) < 0.001 1.1 (1.03–1.19) 0.005
Malnutrition (SNAQ-65+; yes vs. no) 2.53 (1.86–3.43) < 0.001 1.76 (1.35–2.29) < 0.001 1.21 (0.89–1.66) 0.226
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, MRQ-10 10 items of the Medication risk questionnaire, SNAQ-65+ Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire 65 +
  2. Significant ORs and P-values (< 0.05) in bold
  3. Multivariable models were used to analysis the associations between potential associated factors with physical, psychological and social frailty
  4. All factors (e.g. demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and health indicators) were included in each model
  5. Nagelkerke R22 = 0.32 (physical frailty); Nagelkerke R32 = 0.21 (psychological frailty), Nagelkerke R42 = 0.39 (social frailty)