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Table 5 Subject parameters divided by the ability to identify Japanese orange odor (correct/incorrect)

From: Association between the inability to identify particular odors and physical performance, cognitive function, and/or brain atrophy in community-dwelling older adults from the Fukuoka Island City study

Variables Correct
n = 14
Incorrect
n = 30
p-value
Crude Adjusted for age and sex Adjusted models for medial temporal area atrophy
Model
A
Model
B
Model
C
Model
D
Sex, female (%) 9 (64) 21 (70) .705 -     
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 6 (43) 11 (37) .694 -     
 Hyperlipemia 4 (29) 8 (27) .895 -     
 Hypertension 3 (21) 7 (23) .888 -     
Physical parameters, mean ± SD
 Age, years 72.7 ± 5.7 72.2 ± 5.8 .784 -     
 Height, cm 152.3 ± 9.3 153.7 ± 7.9 .605 .255     
 Weight, kg 56.2 ± 12.3 52.6 ± 10.5 .319 .315     
 BMI, kg/m2 24.1 ± 3.9 22.2 ± 3.4 .112 .118     
 GDS, scorea 2.3 ± 2.1 2.9 ± 2.6 .448 .450     
Physical performance, mean ± SD
 Five times CS, sa 6.9 ± 1.7 7.4 ± 1.9 .456 .378     
 OLS, s 50.2 ± 38.2 48.5 ± 41.3 .899 .830     
 Preferred GS, m/s 1.21 ± 0.05 1.32 ± 0.04 .103 .124     
 Maximal GS, m/s 1.76 ± 0.07 1.77 ± 0.05 .896 .896     
Cognitive function, mean ± SD
 Global cognition, score 14.1 ± 1.4 13.9 ± 1.5 .773 .669     
 WMS-R LM-I, score 8.5 ± 4.8 8.8 ± 3.9 .806 .898     
 TMT-A, sa 92.7 ± 34.9 98.7 ± 36.7 .612 .463     
 TMT-B, sa 121.6 ± 41.6 139.2 ± 79.4 .443 .308     
Brain atrophy, mean ± SD
 MTA, z-scorea 0.59 ± 0.40 0.85 ± 0.37 .039 .011 .007 .009 .022 .0498
 GM in the whole brain, %a 3.17 ± 1.37 3.89 ± 1.53 .140 .099     
  1. Crude: analysis of variance (ANOVA). Adjusted age and gender: analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
  2. Crude: un-paired t-test; adjusted models: analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
  3. Model A: ANCOVA adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, GDS, and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, and hypertension)
  4. Model B: ANCOVA adjusted for model A and cognitive function tests (global cognition, WMS-R LM-I, TMT-A, and TMT-B)
  5. Model C: ANCOVA adjusted for model B and physical performance (five times chair stand, OLS, preferred gait speed, and maximal gait speed)
  6. Model D: ANCOVA adjusted for model C and gray matter atrophy in the whole brain
  7. BMI body mass index, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, SD standard deviation, CS chair stand, OLS one leg standing with open eyes, GS gait speed, TMT Trail Making Test, WMS-R LM Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory Immediate, MTA medial temporal area, GM gray matter
  8. aLower scores indicate better performance