Skip to main content

Table 4 Multiple regression (stepwise) analysis for predicting physical performance, cognitive function, and brain atrophy from the identification of different odors

From: Association between the inability to identify particular odors and physical performance, cognitive function, and/or brain atrophy in community-dwelling older adults from the Fukuoka Island City study

  [Step A] [Step B] [Step C] Final model status
Predicted variables Forced entry Stepwise Stepwise Variables B β 95% CI for B R2 adj-R2
Physical performance
 Five times chair stand Age    Age 0.141 0.449 0.055, 0.228* .304 .252
Sex    Sex 0.973 0.256 −0.201, 2.15
  Weight   Weight 0.079 0.488 0.028, 0.130*
   - Constant −8.88   −16.8, −0.97*
 One leg standing with open eyes Age    Age −2.90 −0.414 −4.77, −1.03* .324 .273
Sex    Sex −9.90 −0.117 −32.5, 12.7
  BMI   BMI −4.64 −0.422 −7.56, −1.71*
   - Constant 381.4   222.1, 540.8*
 Preferred gait speed Age    Age −0.005 −0.152 −0.016, 0.006 .028 −.019
Sex    Sex 0.041 0.095 −0.093, 0.175
  - - Constant 1.60   0.796, 2.41*
 Maximal gait speed Age    Age −0.014 −0.330 −0.027, −0.002* .178 .138
Sex    Sex −0.115 −0.220 −0.266, 0.036
  - - Constant 2.99   2.09, 3.90*
Cognitive function
 Global cognition Age    Age −0.101 −0.397 −0.176, −0.027* .156 .115
Sex    Sex 0.033 0.011 −0.870, 0.936
  - - Constant 21.3   15.8, 26.7*
 WMS-R LM-I Age    Age −0.163 −0.225 −0.387, 0.060 .064 .019
Sex    Sex 1.34 0.153 −1.36, 4.04
  - - Constant 18.3   2.06, 34.5*
 TMT-A Age    Age 2.74 0.434 1.03, 4.45* .300 .247
Sex    Sex −8.19 −0.108 −28.9, 12.5
  BMI   BMI −2.95 −0.299 −5.6, −0.30*
   - Constant −105.8   −235.2, 23.6
 TMT-B Age    Age 5.69 0.465 2.24, 9.15* .212 .174
Sex    Sex −10.3 −0.070 −52.1, 31.4
  - - Constant −261.1   −512.1, −10.0*
Brain atrophy
 Medial temporal area Age    Age 0.030 0.424 0.011, 0.048* .328 .277
Sex    Sex −0.248 −0.294 −0.472, −0.024*
  - J orange J orange −0.293 −0.347 −0.515, −0.071*
    Constant −0.863   −2.21, 0.480
 Gray matter in the whole brain Age    Age 0.052 0.198 −0.029, 0.133 .075 .030
Sex    Sex −0.697 −0.219 −1.67, 0.279
  - - Constant 1.05   −4.82, 6.91
  1. Type of odors inversed 1 (correct answer) or 0 (un-correct answer)
  2. B: unstandardized regression coefficient, β: standardized regression coefficient, CI: confidence interval, adj-R2: adjusted-R2
  3. Step A covariates consisted of age and gender in a forced entry analysis
  4. Step B covariates consisted of height, weight, BMI, Geriatric Depression Scale, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, and hypertension in a stepwise analysis
  5. Step C predictors consisted of types of odors: Indian ink, wood, menthol, Japanese cypress (hinoki), perfume, rose, Japanese orange, roast garlic, curry, cooking gas, fermented beans/sweaty socks, and condensed milk in a stepwise analysis
  6. BMI body mass index, OLS one leg standing with open eyes, J orange Japanese orange, TMT Trail Making Test, WMS-R LM-I Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory Immediate
  7. *P<0.05 as a predictor in final models