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Table 3 Subject parameters and performance in each total olfaction tertile

From: Association between the inability to identify particular odors and physical performance, cognitive function, and/or brain atrophy in community-dwelling older adults from the Fukuoka Island City study

  Tertile of total olfaction Crude Adjusted for age and sex
Variables T1, n = 18 T2, n = 13 T3, n = 13 p Trend p Trend
Total olfaction score, mean ± SD 3.9 ± 2.7 7.6 ± 1.6 10.2 ± 0.8 .000 .000   
Sex, female (%) 13 (72) 8 (62) 9 (69) .816 .820 - -
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (28) 6 (46) 6 (46) .469 .281 - -
 Hyperlipemia 6 (33) 2 (15) 4 (31) .512 .798 - -
 Hypertension 4 (22) 4 (31) 2 (15) .644 .712 - -
Physical parameters, mean ± SD
 Age, years 73.0 ± 6.2 74.4 ± 5.5 69.5 ± 4.0 .069 .082 - -
 Height, cm 153.8 ± 8.9 151.5 ± 9.7 154.2 ± 5.9 .678 .889 .222 .787
 Weight, kg 54.1 ± 12.6 52.9 ± 10.5 54.0 ± 10.3 .951 .981 .831 .650
 BMI, kg/m2 22.8 ± 4.3 22.9 ± 2.8 22.7 ± 3.7 .988 .907 .929 .744
 GDS, scorea 3.1 ± 2.7 3.1 ± 2.8 1.8 ± 1.6 .270 .139 .421 .228
Physical performance, mean ± SD
 Five times CS, sa 7.8 ± 2.0 6.9 ± 1.5 6.8 ± 1.6 .262 .163 .241 .450
 OLS, s 43.9 ± 34.8 41.3 ± 42.2 63.9 ± 43.1 .281 .173 .682 .421
 Preferred GS, m/s 1.26 ± 0.22 1.24 ± 0.18 1.36 ± 0.19 .260 .187 .404 .252
 Maximal GS, m/s 1.71 ± 0.25 1.76 ± 0.28 1.86 ± 0.19 .222 .086 .457 .220
Cognitive function, mean ± SD
 Global cognition, score 13.8 ± 1.7 13.7 ± 1.5 14.5 ± 0.8 .255 .155 .682 .404
 WMS-R LM-I, score 7.4 ± 3.9 9.2 ± 4.3 10.1 ± 3.9 .178 .076 .220 .154
 TMT-A, sa 106.3 ± 41.7 103.5 ± 36.4 76.9 ± 14.5 .054 .023 .250 .098
 TMT-B, sa 160.1 ± 95.6 124.3 ± 39.6 106.1 ± 29.5 .085 .033 .112 .145
Brain atrophy, z-score, mean ± SD
 Medial temporal areaa 0.84 ± 0.35 0.79 ± 0.46 0.66 ± 0.40 .459 .223 .682 .533
 GM in the whole braina 3.71 ± 1.65 3.78 ± 1.67 3.46 ± 1.17 .850 .653 .984 .873
  1. Crude: analysis of variance (ANOVA). Adjusted age and gender: analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
  2. BMI body mass index, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, SD standard deviation, CS chair stand, OLS one leg standing with open eyes, GS gait speed, TMT Trail Making Test, WMS-R LM Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory Immediate, GM gray matter
  3. aLower scores indicate better performance