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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the sample

From: A national survey on COVID-19 second-wave lockdowns on older adults’ mental wellbeing, health-seeking behaviours and social outcomes across Australia

Variable National (N = 2990)
N (%)
Victoria
(N = 257)
N (%)
Rest of Australia
(N = 2,733)
N (%)
p-value (Group Differences)*
State/Territory
  NSW 2,102 (70.3) - -  
  ACT 18 (0.6) - -  
  VIC 257 (8.6) - -  
  QLD 176 (5.9) - -  
  SA 135 (4.5) - -  
  WA 45 (1.5) - -  
  TAS 158 (5.3) - -  
  NT 19 (0.6) - -  
  Unknown 80 (2.7)    
Gender
  Female 1,998 (66.8) 204 (79.4) 1,794 (65.6) < 0.001
  Male 933 (31.2) 53 (20.6) 880 (32.2)  
  Unknown 59 (2.0) 0 59 (2.2)  
Age
Mean [SD] 67.3 (7.0) 67.6 (7.2) 67.3 (7.0) 0.59
  55–64 1,372 (45.9) 103 (40.1) 1,269 (46.4) 0.20
  65–74 1,204 (40.3) 116 (45.1) 1,088 (39.8)  
  75–84 364 (12.2) 35 (13.6) 329 (12.0)  
  85+ 50 (1.7) 3 (1.2) 47 (1.7)  
SES
  1 (Most) 320 (10.7) 11 (4.3) 309 (11.3) < 0.001
  2 571 (19.1) 52 (20.2) 519 (19.0)  
  3 533 (17.3) 57 (22.2) 476 (17.4)  
  4 476 (15.9) 68 (26.5) 408 (14.9)  
  5 (least) 998 (33.4) 69 (26.8) 929 (34.0)  
  Missing 95 (3.1) - 92 (3.4)  
Relationship status
  Never married 208 (7.0) 185 (6.8) 23 (9.0) 0.05
  Married/De facto 1,909 (63.9) 1,755 (64.2) 154 (59.9)  
  Divorced/Separated but not divorced 527 (17.6) 476 (17.4) 51 (19.8)  
  Widowed 285 (9.5) 256 (9.4) 29 (11.3)  
  Unknown 61 (2.0) 61 (2.2) 0 (0)  
Country of Birth
  Australia 2,178 (72.8) 204 (79.4) 1,974 (72.2) 0.01
  Other/Unknown 812 (27.2) 53 (20.6) 759 (27.8)  
Education
  Secondary School or less 552 (18.5) 41 (16.0) 511 (18.7) 0.02
  Trade qualification 130 (4.4) 5 (2.0) 125 (4.6)  
  Certificate 263 (8.8) 21 (8.2) 242 (8.9)  
  Diploma 574 (19.2) 59 (23.0) 515 (18.8)  
  Bachelor’s Degree 680 (22.7) 55 (21.4) 625 (22.9)  
  Post-graduate degree 705 (23.6) 74 (28.8) 631 (23.1)  
  Unknown 86 (2.9) 2 (0.8) 84 (3.1)  
Retired
  Yes 1,671 (55.9 %) 107 (41.6 %) 1,521 (55.7 %) 0.40
  No 1,319 (44.1 %) 150 (58.4 %) 1,212 (44.3 %)  
Government benefits/pension
  Yes 1,268 (42.4) 120 (46.7) 1,148 (42.0) 0.05
  No 1,635 (54.7) 135 (52.5) 1,500 (54.9)  
  Unknown 87 (2.9) 2 (0.8) 85 (3.1)  
Aged care services
  Yes 151 (5.1) 14 (5.5) 137 (5.0) 0.15
  No 2,744 (91.8) 240 (93.4) 2,504 (91.6)  
Health status
  Chronic heart disease 214 (7.8) 15 (5.8) 199 (7.3) 0.39
  Diabetes 287 (9.6) 21 (8.2) 266 (9.7) 0.42
  Stroke 73 (2.4) 5 (2.0) 68 (2.5) 0.59
  Sight impairment 657 (22.0) 67 (26.1) 590 (21.6) 0.10
  Hearing impairment 528 (17.7) 44 (17.1) 484 (17.7) 0.81
  COPD 128 (4.3) 6 (2.3) 122 (4.5) 0.11
  High blood pressure 1119 (37.4) 87 (33.9) 1,032 (37.8) 0.22
  Asthma 401 (13.4) 37 (14.4) 364 (13.3) 0.63
  Depression/Anxiety 604 (20.2) 60 (23.4) 544 (19.9) 0.19
EQ-5D-5L Mean [SD] N = 2829
0.79 [0.16]
N = 253
0.81 [0.15]
N = 2576
0.79 [0.16]
0.04a
     Median [IQR] 0.80 [0.72–0.88] 0.84 [0.74–0.88] 0.80 [0.72–0.88]  
     Missing 161 (5.3) 4 (1.5) 156 (6.0)  
LSNS Total Mean [SD] N = 2,841
9.8 [5.2]
N = 253
9.7 [5.4]
N = 2,588
9.8 [5.2]
0.31b
LSNS Family Mean [SD] N = 2,842
4.9 [3.0]
N = 253
5.1 [3.0]
N = 2,589
4.9 [3.0]
0.51b
LSNS Friends Mean [SD] N = 2,842
4.8 [3.1]
N = 253
4.6 [3.2]
N = 2,589
4.9 [3.1]
0.60b
Rating of overall health during COVID-19
  Stayed the same 2,207 (73.8) 189 (73.5) 2,018 (73.8) 0.01
  Got worse 452 (15.1) 50 (19.5) 402 (14.7)  
  Got better 174 (5.8) 14 (5.5) 160 (5.9)  
  Missing 157 (5.3) 4 (1.7) 153 (5.6)  
Type of COVID-19 impact
  Positive 55 (1.8) 3 (1.8) 52 (1.9) < 0.001
  Negative 1,063 (35.6) 118 (45.9) 945 (34.6)  
  Mix 1,265 (42.3) 113 (50.0) 1,152 (42.2)  
  Missing 607 (20.3) 23 (9.0) 584 (21.4)  
Healthcare access
  Unable to seek medical help in the last four weeks 1,202 (40.2) 115 (44.8) 1,087 (39.8) 0.12
  Delayed seeking medical help 400 (13.4) 52 (20.2) 348 (12.7) 0.001
  Difficulty accessing healthcare services 384 (12.8) 27 (10.5) 357 (13.1) 0.24
Healthcare Use
  Elective hospital stay 99 (3.3) 9 (3.5) 90 (3.3) 0.86
  Non-Elective hospital stay 65 (2.2) 3 (1.2) 62 (2.3) 0.25
  Visited a Doctor or Nurse 1537 (51.4) 102 (39.7) 1,435 (52.5) < 0.001
  Visited a healthcare professional 794 (26.6) 53 (20.6) 741 (27.1) 0.02
  Home visit from doctor nurse or healthcare provider 50 (1.7) 2 (0.8) 48 (1.8) 0.24
  Received healthcare help at home 48 (1.6) 4 (1.6) 44 (1.6) 0.95
  Participated in a tele-health consultation 845 (29.3) 100 (38.9) 745 (27.3) < 0.001
  Received telehealth home care help 64 (2.1) 9 (3.5) 55 (2.0) 0.02
  Pharmacy 2,186 (73.1) 193 (75.1) 1,993 (72.9) 0.45
  Other 393 (13.1) 34 (13.2) 359 (13.1) 0.97
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my personal relationships
  Strongly Disagree 288 (9.6) 37 (14.4) 251 (9.2) < 0.001
  Disagree 555 (18.6) 36 (14.0) 519 (19.0)  
  Neutral 1,076 (36.0) 90 (35.0) 986 (36.1)  
  Agree 618 (28.7) 60 (23.4) 558 (20.4)  
  Strongly agree 246 (8.2) 28 (10.9) 218 (8.0)  
  Not sure 15 (0.5) 1 (0.4) 14 (0.5)  
  Missing 192 (6.4) 5 (2.0) 187 (6.8)  
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my social relationships
  Strongly Disagree 330 (11.0) 37 (14.4) 293 (10.7) < 0.001
  Disagree 833 (27.9) 72 (28.0) 761 (27.8)  
  Neutral 846 (28.3) 55 (21.4) 791 (28.9)  
  Agree 603 (20.2) 64 (24.9) 539 (19.7)  
  Strongly agree 178 (6.0) 21 (8.2) 157 (5.7)  
  Not sure 12 (0.4) 3 (1.2) 9 (0.3)  
  Missing 188 (6.3) 5 (2.0) 183 (6.7)  
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my mental health
  Strongly Disagree 338 (11.3) 42 (16.3) 296 (10.8) < 0.001
  Disagree 921 (30.8) 81 (31.5) 840 (30.7)  
  Neutral 1,128 (37.7) 82 (31.9) 1,046 (38.3)  
  Agree 288 (9.6) 37 (14.4) 251 (9.2)  
  Strongly agree 101 (3.4) 8 (3.1) 93 (3.4)  
  Not sure 19 (0.6) 2 (0.8) 17 (0.6)  
  Missing 195 (6.5) 4 (2.0) 190 (7.0)  
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my physical health
  Strongly Disagree 301 (10.1) 36 (14.0) 265 (9.7) < 0.001
  Disagree 826 (27.6) 69 (26.9) 757 (27.7)  
  Neutral 993 (33.2) 68 (26.5) 925 (33.9)  
  Agree 483 (16.2) 52 (20.2) 431 (15.8)  
  Strongly agree 183 (6.1) 26 (10.1) 157 (5.7)  
  Not sure 10 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 9 (0.3)  
  Missing 194 (6.5) 5 (2.0) 189 (6.9)  
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my lifestyle
  Strongly Disagree 324 (10.8) 36 (14.0) 288 (10.5) 0.005
  Disagree 861 (28.8) 79 (30.7) 782 (28.6)  
  Neutral 954 (31.9) 69 (26.9) 885 (32.4)  
  Agree 484 (16.2) 46 (17.9) 438 (16.0)  
  Strongly agree 161 (5.4) 21 (8.2) 140 (5.1)  
  Not sure 12 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 11 (0.4)  
  Missing 194 (6.5) 5 (2.0) 189 (6.9)  
  1. *Level of significance of < 0.0021, highlighted in bold. Categorical tests are chi square and continuous variables are either aMann Whitney test or bOneway ANOVA test