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Table 3 Clinical outcomes of the trial

From: Systematic geriatric assessment for older patients with frailty in the emergency department: a randomised controlled trial

Outcome   Intervention n = 213 Control n = 219 ratio or difference [95 % CI] p value
Primary outcome
 Cumulative hospital stay(days) during 365d follow-up rate per 100 person-years 3470 3149 rate ratio 1.10 [0.55;2.19] 0.783
Secondary outcomes
 Admission from ED index visit n (%) 133 (62.4) 153 (69.9) risk ratio 0.89 [0.78;1.02] 0.103
 Number of hospital admissions30d mean (SD) 0.79 (0.60) 0.91 (0.64) mean difference − 0.12 [-0.23;0.00] 0.475
 Hospital admissions 365d rate per 100 person-years 230 246 rate ratio 0.94 [0.82;1.07] 0.345
 Number of ED readmissions 72 h mean (SD) 0.04 (0.19) 0.05 (0.21) mean difference − 0.01 [-0.05;0.03] 0.400
 Number of ED readmissions 30d mean (SD) 0.29 (0.58) 0.29 (0.54) mean difference 0.00 [-0.11;0.11] 0.817
 ED readmissions 365d rate per 100 person-years 268 238 rate ratio 1.12 [0.99;1.28] 0.081
 Alive and living-at-home 365d n (%) 116 (54.5) 111 (50.7) RR 1.07 [0.90;1.29] 0.432
 EQ-5D-5 L-index 365da mean (SD) 0.53 (0.28) 0.53 (0.27) mean difference 0.0 [-0.06;0.06] 0.995
 EQ-VAS 365db mean (SD) 55.28 (23.83) 53.23 (22.78) mean difference 2.04 [-3.26;7.35] 0.449
Other outcomes
 ED LOS hh:mm median (IQR) 7:23 (5:22 − 15:23) 9:25 (6:00–18:40) median difference − 2:02 0.052
 Hospital LOS from the index-visit if admitted (days)c mean (SD) 15.91 (24.30) 12.30 (20.38) mean difference 3.61 [-1.67;8.83] 0.069
 Death 365d n (%) 53 (24.9) 59 (26.9) risk ratio 0.92 [0.67;1.27] 0.626
 Death 30d n (%) 16 (7.5) 15 (6.8) risk ratio 1.10 [0.56;2.16] 0.790
 ED visits for falls 365dd rate per 100 person-years 59 47 rate ratio 1.27 [0.95;1.69] 0.104
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence Interval, ED Emergency Department, SD Standard Deviation, LOS Length of Stay, IQR interquartile range
  2. adata available for 150 patients in the intervention group, 150 patients in the control group
  3. bdata available for 149 patients in the intervention group, and 150 patients in the control group
  4. cOnly patients admitted from the index ED visit included. Only the first hospital stay period counted for LOS.
  5. dpatients who visited the ED after the index ED visit for fall-related complaint