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Table 2 Univariate falls incidence rate ratios for characteristics of 241 community-dwelling older adults (75+ years)

From: Development of a multivariable prognostic PREdiction model for 1-year risk of FALLing in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults aged 75 years and above (PREFALL)

Variable Unit or category IRR (95% CI) p-value
Sociodemographics
 Age (years) Years 0.97 (0.94–1.00) <.05
 Sex Men Ref Ref
Women 0.90 (0.67–1.23) .52
 Marital status Married or living with a partner Ref Ref
Not married 1.44 (0.60–2.90) .36
Separated or divorced 0.91 (0.35–1.93) .83
Widow 1.08 (0.79–1.47) .64
 Living alone No Ref Ref
Yes 1.19 (0.88–1.61) .27
 Highest level of education completed Municipal primary and lower secondary school Ref Ref
General upper secondary education 0.76 (0.19–0.21) .64
Skilled worker 1.01 (0.67–1.49) .97
Short-cycle higher education 2.97 (1.80–4.74) < .05
Medium-cycle higher education 2.00 (1.36–2.92) < .05
Long cycle higher education 0.84 (0.25–2.03) .73
 Weekly alcohol consumption 0–7 units Ref Ref
>  7 units 1.55 (1.12–2.11) <.05
 Dogs or cats in the household No Ref Ref
Yes 1.26 (0.82–1.85) .27
 Using glasses with multifocal lenses No Ref Ref
Yes 0.60 (0.44–0.83) <.05
Comorbidities and medication
 Having two or more diseases or chronic disorders No Ref Ref
Yes 1.35 (0.86–2.25) .21
 Number of all prescribed drugs Count 1.06 (1.02–1.10) <.05
Nutrition
 Body Mass Index Kg/m2 0.98 (0.95–1.01) a .24
 Mini Nutritional Assessment Score Score from 0 to 14 (14 is the best possible score) 0.84 (0.78–0.91) a <.05
Activities of Daily Living and mobility
 Vulnerable Elders Survey – 13 Score from 1 to 10 (1 is the best score) 1.13 (1.07–1.18) <.05
 Using walking aids No Ref Ref
Yes 1.37 (1.02–1.83) <.05
 Habitual gait speed M/sec 0.88 (0.65–1.18) .41
Psychology and cognition
 Geriatric Depression Scale - 4 items 0 Ref Ref
1 0.76 (0.50–1.13) .20
2 1.15 (0.54–2.14) .67
3 9.5 (5.34–15.70) <.05
 Orientation-Memory-Concentration test Score from 0 to 28 (28 is the best score) 0.99 (0.96–1.03) c .69
 EQ-5D-3L Score from −0.167 to 1.000 points 0.19 (0.09–0.40) <.05
Falls
 One or more falls within the previous year No Ref Ref
Yes 3.47 (2.53–4.85) <.05
 Short Falls Efficacy Scale International Score from 7 to 28 (7 is the best score) 1.06 (1.01–1.11) <.05
 Do you think that you will fall within the next year? No Ref Ref
Yes 4.10 (3.04–5.50) b <.05
Frailty and symptoms
 Tilburg Frailty Indicator Score from 0 to 15 points (0 is the best possible score) 1.13 (1.06–1.20) a <.05
 Occasionally experiencing dizziness No Ref Ref
Yes 2.17 (1.59–2.99) <.05
 Occasionally experiencing lower limb pain when walking? No Ref Ref
Yes 1.29 (0.96–1.74) .09
 Occasionally experiencing urinary incontinence No Ref Ref
Yes 1.25 (0.92–1.67) .15
Physical
 Total grip strength of both upper limbs Kg 0.99 (0.97–1.00) b .17
 Difference in grip strength between upper limbs Kg 0.95 (0.86–1.04) b .34
 Total isometric lower limb strength Kg 0.98 (0.96–1.00) b, d .08
 Difference in isometric lower limb strengths Kg 0.78 (0.62–0.97) b, d .03
 Average lower limb reaction time Ms 0.99 (0.99–1.00) b, d .96
 Difference in lower limb reaction time Ms 0.99 (0.99–1.00) b, e .09
 Centre of Pressure area mm2 1.01 (1.00–1.02) a, d <.05
 Centre of Pressure speed mm/s 1.04 (0.94–1.14) a, d .45
  1. Notes: n number, % percentage proportion, IRR incidence rate ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref reference group, m/sec meters per second, kg kilogram, ms milliseconds, mm2 square millimeters, mm/s millimeters per second, kg/m2 kg per square meters, a = 1 missing observation, b = 2 missing observations, c = 4 missing observations, d = data has been scaled by a factor of 10, e = IRR (95% CI): 0.9997914 (0.9995242–1.000003)