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Table 3 Characteristics associated with life-space over time, N = 1581a

From: Exploring life-space in the nursing home. An observational longitudinal study

Characteristic Bivariate model Multiple model
Regr.coeff. (SE) p-value Regr.coeff. (SE) p-value
Time 0.07 (0.07) 0.31 1.16 (0.24) < 0.001
Time x Time −0.01 (0.002) < 0.001 −0.03 (0.008) < 0.001
Age −0.59 (0.07) < 0.001 −0.31 (0.05) < 0.001
 Age x Time 0.02 (0.01) 0.02   
 Age x Time x Time −0.0002 (0.003) 0.57   
Sex (male) 0.45 (1.14) 0.70 −0.21 (0.80) 0.79
 Sex x Time 0.15 (0.15) 0.32   
 Sex x Time x Time −0.007 (0.005) 0.15   
GMHR Poor −4.60 (0.95) < 0.001 −1.63 (0.61) 0.008
 GMHR Poor x Time 0.05 (0.15) 0.73   
 GMHR Poor x Time x Time − 0.001 (0.005) 0.80   
Medication −0.31 (0.16) 0.050 −0.003 (0.10) 0.98
 Medication x Time 0.05 (0.02) 0.04   
 Medication x Time x Time −0.001 (0.007) 0.13   
SPPB 1.24 (0.13) < 0.001 0.84 (0.10) < 0.001
 SPPB x Time 0.001 (0.02) 0.96   
 SPPB x Time x Time −0.00002 (0.00006) 0.97   
MOBID-2 P1 −0.32 (0.08) < 0.001 −0.09 (0.05) 0.059
 MOBID-2 P1 x Time 0.005 (0.01) 0.65   
 MOBID-2 P1 x Time x Time −0.00007 (0.0003) 0.82   
MOBID-2 P2 −0.22 (0.11) 0.04 −0.07 (0.07) 0.29
 MOBID-2 P2 x Time −0.002 (0.02) 0.92   
 MOBID-2 P2 x Time x Time −0.00007 (0.0005) 0.89   
CDR-sob −0.26 (0.13) 0.051 −0.14 (0.13) 0.27
 CDR-sob x Time −0.09 (0.02) < 0.001 −0.08 (0.02) < 0.001
 CDR-sob x Time x Time b 0.002 (0.0006) 0.003 0.002 (0.0006) 0.004 b
NPI agitation 0.16 (0.07) 0.02 0.12 (0.04) 0.005
 Agitation x Time −0.007 (0.009) 0.44   
 Agitation x Time x Time −0.0001 (0.0003) 0.70   
NPI psychosis 0.22 (0.11) 0.051 0.04 (0.08) 0.63
 Psychosis x Time −0.03 (0.02) 0.058   
 Psychosis x Time x Time −0.0004 (0.0005) 0.47   
NPI affective 0.07 (0.08) 0.43 −0.02 (0.06) 0.70
 Affective x Time −0.02 (0.01) 0.12   
 Affective x Time x Time 0.0001 (0.0004) 0.71   
NPI apathy −0.37 (0.17) 0.03 −0.39 (0.10) < 0.001
 Apathy x Time −0.02 (0.03) 0.56   
 Apathy x Time x Time 0.0001 (0.0008) 0.88   
Staff-to-resident ratio 5.11 (6.95) 0.46 −3.58 (4.37) 0.41
 Staff-to-resident ratio x Time −0.97 (0.84) 0.25   
 Staff-to-resident ratio x Time x Time 0.03 (0,03) 0.33   
Unit size −0.69 (0.14) < 0.001 −0.30 (0.10) 0.003
 Unit size x Time 0.02 (0.02) 0.15   
 Unit size x Time x Time 0.00004 (0.00005) 0.94   
SCUEQS 0.44 (0.13) 0.001 0.15 (0.09) 0.08
 SCUEQS x Time −0.001 (0.02) 0.92   
 SCUEQS x Time x Time −0.0001 (0.0005) 0.73   
  1. aBased on the number of residents assessed with Nursing Home Life-Space Diameter (NHLSD) at the 7 time points. Cases with at least one missing value on covariates were excluded (n0 = 453, n6 = 318, n12 = 256, n18 = 197, n24 = 153, n30 = 116, n36 = 88). ICC = 22.3%
  2. bChange in association in time between life-space and CDR-SOB is illustrated in Supplementary Figure S1B
  3. SE Standard Error, GMHR General Medical Health Rating (dichotomized excellent/good versus fair/poor), SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, MOBID-2 Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia Pain Scale Part 1 and Part 2, CDR-SOB Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory agitation (agitation/aggression, disinhibition, irritability), psychosis (delusions, hallucinations), affective symptoms (depression, anxiety), and apathy (apathy), SCUEQS Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale