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Table 2 Baseline characteristics within groups (N = 541) and associations with group-belonging (N = 453a), Group 2 as reference

From: Exploring life-space in the nursing home. An observational longitudinal study

  Descriptive characteristics Bivariate model Multiple model
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age, mean (SD)
 Group 1 84.4 (9.7) 0.99 (0.92; 1.06) 0.69 0.99 (0.92; 1.07) 0.85
 Group 2 85.2 (6.7) 1   1  
 Group 3 79.4 (7.7) 0.90 (0.86; 0.94) < 0.001 0.91 (0.87; 0.95) < 0.001
 Group 4 80.9 (8.8) 0.93 (0.89; 0.96) < 0.001 0.94 (0.90; 0.98) 0.005
Sex (male), n (%)
 Group 1 6 (31.6) 1.21 (0.43; 3.43) 0.72 1.50 (0.49; 4.60) 0.48
 Group 2 132 (33.8) 1   1  
 Group 3 24 (42.9) 1.78 (0.96; 3.30) 0.07 1.45 (0.72; 2.92) 0.30
 Group 4 30 (39.5) 1.21 (0.69; 2.12) 0.50 0.98 (0.51; 1.89) 0.96
GMHR Poor, n (%)
 Group 1 6 (33.3) 0.51 (0.18; 1.43) 0.20 0.29 (0.08; 1.05) 0.059
 Group 2 204 (54.4) 1   1  
 Group 3 19 (35.8) 0.48 (0.25; 0.90) 0.02 1.01 (0.47; 2.18) 0.99
 Group 4 4 (40.5) 0.54 (0.31; 0.93) 0.03 1.32 (0.66; 2.64) 0.42
Medication, mean (SD)
 Group 1 5.6 (3.2) 0.96 (0.82; 1.14) 0.67 0.99 (0.82; 1.19) 0.90
 Group 2 5.9 (3.1) 1   1  
 Group 3 5.0 (3.3) 0.92 (0.83; 1.03) 0.14 0.98 (0.86; 1.11) 0.74
 Group 4 4.7 (2.8) 0.86 (0.78; 0.95) 0.003 0.88 (0.79; 0.99) 0.04
SPPB, mean (SD)
 Group 1 3.1 (2.8) 0.96 (0.81; 1.13) 0.59 0.92 (0.76; 1.11) 0.38
 Group 2 3.6 (3.2) 1   1  
 Group 3 6.5 (4.1) 1.28 (1.17; 1.40) < 0.001 1.19 (1.07; 1.33) 0.001
 Group 4 6.4 (3.8) 1.28 (1.18; 1.39) < 0.001 1.18 (1.07; 1.30) 0.001
MOBID-2 P1, mean (SD)
 Group 1 6.9 (7.9) 1.02 (0.95; 1.09) 0.60 1.02 (0.94; 1.11) 0.59
 Group 2 5.3 (6.7) 1   1  
 Group 3 2.9 (5.0) 0.90 (0.84; 0.97) 0.006 0.95 (0.87; 1.04) 0.29
 Group 4 2.5 (4.3) 0.89 (0.83; 0.95) 0.001 0.93 (0.86; 1.01) 0.08
MOBID-2 P2, mean (SD)
 Group 1 4.2 (3.4) 1.03 (0.94; 1.13) 0.51 1.04 (0.93; 1.15) 0.51
 Group 2 3.9 (5.1) 1   1  
 Group 3 2.2 (3.5) 0.92 (0.84; 1.00) 0.059 0.96 (0.86; 1.06) 0.41
 Group 4 2.3 (3.8) 0.93 (0.86; 1.00) 0.047 1.00 (0.91; 1.10) 0.99
CDR-SOB, mean (SD)
 Group 1 11.5 (3.8) 1.00 (0.87; 1.16) 0.97 0.98 (0.83; 1.17) 0.85
 Group 2 11.6 (3.4)     
 Group 3 10.8 (4.0) 0.96 (0.88; 1.05) 0.41 0.92 (0.83; 1.03) 0.15
 Group 4 10.1 (3.8) 0.89 (0.82; 0.96) 0.004 0.85 (0.77; 0.94) 0.002
NPI agitation, mean (SD)
 Group 1 4.7 (7.6) 1.03 (0.97; 1.10) 0.38 1.00 (0.92; 1.09) 0.99
 Group 2 4.3 (7.1) 1   1  
 Group 3 5.1 (7.5) 1.03 (0.99; 1.07) 0.23 1.02 (0.96; 1.08) 0.57
 Group 4 5.8 (8.3) 1.04 (1.00; 1.07) 0.04 1.06 (1.00; 1.11) 0.04
NPI psychosis, mean (SD)
 Group 1 2.8 (5.7) 1.07 (0.97; 1.17) 0.18 1.08 (0.96; 1.21) 0.22
 Group 2 1.7 (4.0) 1   1  
 Group 3 2.2 (4.5) 1.04 (0.98; 1.12) 0.20 1.04 (0.94; 1.14) 0.44
 Group 4 2.1 (4.7) 1.05 (0.99; 1.11) 0.13 1.05 (0.97; 1.14) 0.65
NPI affective, mean (SD)
 Group 1 4.4 (6.1) 1.02 (0.94; 1.10) 0.67 1.02 (0.94; 1.12) 0.63
 Group 2 4.1 (6.1) 1   1  
 Group 3 4.2 (5.9) 1.01 (0.96; 1.06) 0.84 1.00 (0.94; 1.07) 0.93
Group 4 3.2 (5.5) 0.97 (0.93; 1.03) 0.31 0.97 (0.91; 1.03) 0.32
NPI apathy, mean (SD)
 Group 1 1.6 (2.5) 0.96 (0.79; 1.16) 0.64 0.92 (0.75; 1.13) 0.42
 Group 2 1.6 (3.0) 1   1  
 Group 3 1.0 (2.3) 0.92 (0.81; 1.05) 0.22 0.95 (0.83; 1.10) 0.50
 Group 4 0.6 (2.0) 0.79 (0.67; 0.94) 0.008 0.86 (0.72; 1.02) 0.09
Staff-to-resident ratio, mean (SD)
 Group 1 0.31 (0.06) 0.78 (0.00; 390.8) 0.94 0.35 (0.00; 532.6) 0.78
 Group 2 0.32 (0.08) 1   1  
 Group 3 0.34 (0.13) 4.75 (0.25; 91.3) 0.30 0.34 (0.01; 11.7) 0.55
 Group 4 0.32 (0.08) 1.80 (0.09; 35.2) 0.70 0.30 (0.01; 8.9) 0.49
Unit size, mean (SD)
 Group 1 13.1 (6.7) 1.04 (0.95; 1.13) 0.39 1.05 (0.96; 1.16) 0.29
 Group 2 11.2 (4.9) 1   1  
 Group 3 9.1 (3.1) 0.86 (0.77; 0.97) 0.01 0.91 (0.81; 1.02) 0.10
 Group 4 10.0 (4.4) 0.89 (0.81; 0.97) 0.01 0.94 (0.86; 1.02) 0.15
SCUEQS, mean (SD)
 Group 1 25.2 (4.6) 0.99 (0.88; 1.10) 0.81 1.00 (0.89; 1.12) 0.97
 Group 2 25.0 (4.7) 1   1  
 Group 3 25.9 (4.2) 1.03 (0.97; 1.11) 0.33 0.99 (0.91; 1.06) 0.69
 Group 4 26.9 (4.7) 1.10 (1.03; 1.17) 0.003 1.06 (0.99; 1.14) 0.12
  1. Results of nominal regression: bivariate models include one characteristic at a time, multiple model includes all characteristics simultaneously
  2. aCases with at least one missing value on covariates were excluded (Group 1 n = 16, Group 2 n = 326, Group 3 n = 47, and Group 4 n = 64)
  3. OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, SD Standard Deviation, GMHR General Medical Health Rating (dichotomized excellent/good versus fair/poor), SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery (0–12), MOBID-2 Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia Pain Scale Part 1 (0–50) and Part 2 (0–50), CDR-SOB Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (0–18), NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory agitation (agitation/aggression, disinhibition, irritability, 0–36), psychosis (delusions, hallucinations, 0–24), affective symptoms (depression, anxiety, 0–24), and apathy (apathy, 0–12), SCUEQS Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (0–41)