Skip to main content

Table 4 Generalized estimating equation analysis of frailty predicting subjective age

From: Bidirectional relationship between subjective age and frailty: a prospective cohort study

Models Concurrent associationa Lagged associationa
Model 1
 Frailty
  Robust (reference group) 1.00 1.00
  Pre-frailty and frailty 1.019 (1.014–1.024) *** 1.007 (1.002–1.012) **
Model 2
 Frailty
  Robust (reference group) 1.00 1.00
  Pre-frailty and frailty 1.021 (1.016–1.026) *** 1.008 (1.003–1.013) **
Model 3
 Frailty
  Robust (reference group) 1.00 1.00
  Pre-frailty and frailty 1.014 (1.007–1.020) *** 1.004 (0.998–1.010)
  1. Model 1: independent variable of interest
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + demographic covariates (chronological age, sex, race, education, living arrangement)
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + health-related covariates (pain, depression, number of ADLs/IADLs, BMI, health status, number of chronic illnesses, hospitalized, fall, smoking, dementia, vigorous activities)
  4. aExponentiated coefficient and 95 % confidence interval were reported here
  5. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001