Skip to main content

Table 3 Baseline characteristics of participants by frailty categories (N = 2,592)

From: Bidirectional relationship between subjective age and frailty: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Total Robust (n = 957) Pre-frail (n = 1,228) Frail (n = 407) P values
Age, years, mean (SD) 75.2 (6.8) 74.1 (6.5) 76.0 (6.8) 76.6 (7.1) < 0.001
Sex (Female), n (%) 1,495 (57.7) 611 (52.5) 732 (61.1) 152 (66.4) < 0.001
Race, n (%)      < 0.001
 White, non-Hispanic 1,976 (76.2) 942 (80.9) 907 (75.7) 127 (55.5)  
 Black, non-Hispanic 458 (17.7) 161 (13.8) 223 (18.6) 74 (32.3)  
 Indian/Asian/Native/Hawaii 48 (1.9) 23 (2.0) 21 (1.8) 4 (1.8)  
 Hispanic 105 (4.1) 39 (3.3) 43 (3.6) 23 (10.0)  
 Other 5 (0.2) 0 4 (0.3) 1 (0.4)  
Education, n (%)      < 0.001
 Less than high school 484 (18.7) 137 (11.8) 260 (21.7) 87 (38.0)  
 High school graduates 691 (26.7) 275 (23.6) 359 (30.0) 57 (24.9)  
 College or vocational school 673 (26.0) 296 (25.4) 320 (26.7) 57 (24.9)  
 Bachelor or higher 744 (28.7) 457 (39.2) 259 (21.6) 28 (12.2)  
Living arrangement, n (%)      < 0.001
 Alone 821 (31.8) 346 (29.8) 395 (33.1) 80 (35.2)  
 With spouse/partner only 1,218 (47.1) 637 (54.8) 507 (42.4) 74 (32.6)  
 With others only 308 (11.9) 100 (8.6) 161 (13.5) 47 (20.7)  
 With spouse/partner and others 237 (9.2) 79 (6.8) 132 (11.0) 26 (11.5)  
Pain, n (%) 1,408 (54.3) 470 (40.3) 749 (62.5) 189 (82.5) < 0.001
Depressive symptoms, n (%) 262 (10.1) 51 (4.4) 147 (12.3) 64 (28.2) < 0.001
Number of ADLs, mean (SD) 0.3 (0.7) 0.08 (0.3) 0.3 (0.7) 1.2 (1.3) < 0.001
Number of IADLs, mean (SD) 0.6 (1.1) 0.2 (0.5) 0.7 (1.1) 2.0 (1.8) < 0.001
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n (%) 807 (31.4) 290 (25.0) 422 (35.5) 95 (42.0) < 0.001
Health status, n (%)      < 0.001
 Excellent 413 (15.9) 288 (24.7) 120 (10.0) 5 (2.2)  
 Very good 852 (32.9) 488 (41.9) 340 (28.4) 24 (10.5)  
 Good 826 (31.9) 321 (27.6) 438 (36.6) 67 (29.2)  
 Fair 392 (15.1) 62 (5.3) 243 (20.3) 87 (38.0)  
 Poor 108 (4.2) 6 (0.5) 56 (4.7) 46 (20.1)  
Number of chronic illnesses, mean (SD) 2.4 (1.5) 1.9 (1.3) 2.7 (1.5) 3.5 (1.6) < 0.001
Hospitalized, n (%) 484 (18.7) 127 (11.0) 281 (23.5) 76 (33.3) < 0.001
Fall, n (%) 707 (27.3) 222 (19.1) 373 (31.2) 112 (49.1) < 0.001
Smoking, n (%) 1,324 (51.1) 588 (50.5) 612 (51.1) 124 (54.2) 0.596
Dementia, n (%) 33 (1.3) 9 (0.8) 17 (1.4) 7 (3.1) 0.016
Vigorous activities, n (%) 1,151 (44.4) 766 (65.8) 366 (30.6) 19 (8.3) < 0.001
  1. SD Standard Deviation, ADL Activities of Daily Living, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, BMI Body Mass Index