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Table 2 Generalized estimating equation analysis of subjective age predicting frailty

From: Bidirectional relationship between subjective age and frailty: a prospective cohort study

Models Concurrent associationa Lagged associationa
Model 1
 Subjective age 3.87 (3.02–4.97) *** 2.50 (1.96–3.20)***
Model 2
 Subjective age 4.23 (3.25–5.52) *** 2.59 (2.00-3.35) ***
Model 3
 Subjective age 2.39 (1.76–3.24) *** 1.88 (1.42–2.50) ***
  1. Model 1: independent variable of interest
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + demographic covariates (chronological age, sex, race, education, living arrangement)
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + health-related covariates (pain, depression, number of ADLs/IADLs, BMI, health status, number of chronic illnesses, hospitalized, fall, smoking, dementia, vigorous activities)
  4. aOdds ratio and 95 % confidence interval were reported here 
  5. ***p < 0.001