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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by subjective age categories (N = 2,592)

From: Bidirectional relationship between subjective age and frailty: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Total Equal (n = 462) Younger (n = 1,989) Older (n = 141) p values
Age, years, mean (SD) 75.2 (6.8) 75.4 (6.7) 75.3 (6.8) 73.4 (6.0) 0.004
Sex (Female), n (%) 1,495 (57.7) 269 (58.2) 1,139 (57.3) 87 (61.7) 0.568
Race, n (%)      0.693
 White, non-Hispanic 1,976 (76.2) 337 (72.9) 1,536 (77.2) 103 (73.0)  
 Black, non-Hispanic 458 (17.7) 95 (20.6) 334 (16.8) 29 (20.6)  
 Indian/Asian/Native/Hawaii 48 (1.9) 8 (1.7) 37(1.9) 3 (2.1)  
 Hispanic 105 (4.0) 21 (4.6) 78 (3.9) 6 (4.3)  
 Other 5 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 0  
Education, n (%)      < 0.001
 Less than high school 484 (18.7) 98 (21.2) 345 (17.4) 41 (29.1)  
 High school graduates 691 (26.7) 148 (32.0) 498 (25.0) 45 (31.9)  
 College or vocational school 673 (25.9) 103 (22.3) 535 (26.9) 35 (24.8)  
 Bachelor or higher 744 (28.7) 113 (24.5) 611 (30.7) 20 (14.2)  
Living arrangement, n (%)      0.013
 Alone 821 (31.8) 165 (35.7) 621 (31.3) 35 (25.0)  
 With spouse/partner only 1,218 (47.1) 193 (41.8) 961 (48.5) 64 (45.7)  
 With others only 308 (11.9) 56 (12.1) 225 (11.4) 27 (19.3)  
 With spouse/partner and others 237 (9.2) 48 (10.4) 175 (8.8) 14 (10.0)  
Pain, n (%) 1,408 (54.3) 291 (63.0) 1,013 (50.9) 104 (73.8) < 0.001
Depressive symptoms, n (%) 262 (10.1) 60 (13.1) 156 (7.8) 46 (32.9) < 0.001
Number of ADLs, mean (SD) 0.3 (0.7) 0.4 (0.8) 0.2 (0.6) 0.8 (1.2) < 0.001
Number of IADLs, mean (SD) 0.6 (1.1) 0.8 (1.3) 0.4 (1.0) 1.4 (1.7) < 0.001
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n (%) 807 (31.3) 180 (39.4) 560 (28.3) 67 (47.9) < 0.001
Health status, n (%)      < 0.001
 Excellent 413 (15.9) 32 (6.9) 379 (19.0) 2 (1.4)  
 Very good 852 (32.9) 110 (23.9) 719 (36.1) 23 (16.3)  
 Good 826 (31.9) 189 (41.0) 596 (30.0) 41 (29.1)  
 Fair 392 (15.1) 99 (21.5) 244 (12.3) 49 (34.8)  
 Poor 108 (4.2) 31 (6.7) 51 (2.6) 26 (18.4)  
Number of chronic illnesses, mean (SD) 2.4 (1.5) 2.8 (1.5) 2.3 (1.5) 3.3 (1.6) < 0.001
Hospitalized, n (%) 484 (18.7) 96 (20.8) 347 (17.5) 41 (29.1) 0.001
Fall, n (%) 707 (27.3) 144 (31.2) 501 (25.2) 62 (44.0) < 0.001
Smoking, n (%) 1,324 (51.1) 233 (50.4) 1,009 (50.7) 82 (58.2) 0.223
Dementia, n (%) 33 (1.3) 8 (1.7) 22 (1.1) 3 (2.1) 0.362
Vigorous activities, n (%) 1,151 (44.4) 168 (36.4) 950 (47.8) 33 (23.4) < 0.001
  1. SDStandard Deviation, ADL Activities of Daily Living, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, BMI Body Mass Index