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Table 2 Bivariate and logistic regression estimates for major depression among older adults in India

From: Association of late-life depression with cognitive impairment: evidence from a cross-sectional study among older adults in India

Variables % p < 0.05 AOR (95 % CI)
Age (in years)
  Young old (60–69) 8.41   Ref.
  Old old (70–79) 8.42   0.788*** (0.676–0.918)
  Oldest old (80+) 10.79   0.805* (0.623–1.040)
Sex   *  
  Male 7.5   Ref.
  Female 9.71   1.136 (0.967–1.333)
Educational status   *  
  No/primary education 9.55   Ref.
  Secondary 6.39   0.903 (0.745–1.095)
  Higher 5.56   0.771 (0.561–1.059)
Marital status   *  
  Currently in union 7.77   Ref.
  Not in union 10.13   1.211** (1.020–1.438)
Living arrangement   *  
  Alone 13.51   Ref.
  With spouse 8.56   0.785 (0.570–1.082)
  Others 8.32   0.718** (0.548–0.939)
Working status   *  
  Never/Not working 9.17   Ref.
  Currently working 7.87   1.190** (1.007–1.406)
  Retired 7.74   1.302* (0.954–1.776)
Self-rated health   *  
  Good 6.19   Ref.
  Poor 16.42   2.586*** (2.237–2.989)
ADL difficulty   *  
  No 6.69   Ref.
  Yes 15.34   1.736*** (1.451–2.077)
IADL difficulty   *  
  No 5.58   Ref.
  Yes 12.06   1.694*** (1.429–2.007)
MPCE quintile   *  
  Poorest 8.88   Ref.
  Poorer 7.92   0.916 (0.759–1.105)
  Middle 8.17   1.035 (0.825–1.298)
  Richer 8.74   1.111 (0.900–1.371)
  Richest 9.92   1.337*** (1.088–1.642)
Religion   *  
  Hindu 8.6   Ref.
  Muslim 9.63   1.049 (0.843–1.305)
  Others 7.94   0.93(0.53,1.64)
Caste   *  
  SC/ST 8.48   Ref.
  OBC 9.25   1.282*** (1.080–1.520)
  Others 7.9   1.056 (0.873–1.278)
Place of residence   *  
  Rural 9.62   Ref.
  Urban 6.34   0.826** (0.698–0.978)
Region   *  
  North 6.8   Ref.
  Central 14.53   2.275*** (1.840–2.813)
  East 8.28   1.052 (0.864–1.281)
  Northeast 5.63   0.813 (0.600–1.101)
  West 5.82   0.599*** (0.474–0.758)
  South 7.69   1.078 (0.856–1.358)
Total 8.67   
  1. %: Percentage; Ref: Reference category; *if p < 0.05, **if p < 0.01, ***if p < 0.001; AOR Odds Ratio Adjusted for all covariates; ADL Activities of daily living; IADL Instrumental activities of daily living; MPCE Monthly per capita consumption expenditure