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Table 2 Non-adjusted odds ratios of LTC certification in participants aged ≥65 years

From: Factors associated with long-term care certification in older adults: a cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative survey in Japan

  Total Men Women
Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Predisposing factors
 Sex (women vs men) 1.74 (1.56–1.93) < 0.001
 Age, years (vs 65–69)
  70–74 1.88 (1.48–2.39) < 0.001 1.80 (1.29–2.51) < 0.001 1.98 (1.41–2.79) < 0.001
  75–79 3.35 (2.67–4.20) < 0.001 2.77 (2.00–3.83) < 0.001 3.96 (2.88–5.45) < 0.001
  80–84 8.18 (6.60–10.16) < 0.001 7.01 (5.14–9.56) < 0.001 9.39 (6.92–12.75) < 0.001
  85–89 21.00 (16.91–26.08) < 0.001 10.45 (7.46–14.63) < 0.001 30.32 (22.42–41.02) < 0.001
  ≥ 90 50.00 (39.52–63.26) < 0.001 26.22 (17.34–39.66) < 0.001 63.95 (46.58–87.80) < 0.001
 Education level (>9 vs ≤ 9 years) 0.50 (0.45–0.56) < 0.001 0.52 (0.44–0.63) < 0.001 0.52 (0.46–0.60) < 0.001
Enabling factors
 Equivalent disposable incomea 0.83 (0.74–0.93) < 0.001 0.80 (0.66–0.97) 0.020 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.046
  (≥ ¥100,000 vs < ¥100,000)
 Type of housing (rented vs owned) 1.28 (1.13–1.45) < 0.001 1.44 (1.16–1.78) < 0.001 1.19 (1.02–1.38) 0.026
 Presence of a spouse (yes vs no) 0.23 (0.21–0.26) < 0.001 0.35 (0.29–0.42) < 0.001 0.18 (0.16–0.21) < 0.001
 Household structure 1.49 (1.35–1.64) < 0.001 1.14 (0.96–1.36) 0.127 1.62 (1.43–1.83) < 0.001
  (Others vs single or couple-only)
 Presence of children living separately (yes vs no) 1.22 (1.10–1.36) < 0.001 1.15 (0.95–1.38) 0.143 1.26 (1.11–1.44) < 0.001
Need factors
 Subjective symptoms
 Number of symptoms (≥3 vs 0–2) 2.59 (2.35–2.86) < 0.001 2.40 (2.01–2.85) < 0.001 2.62 (2.32–2.96) < 0.001
  Fever 3.77 (2.58–5.51) < 0.001 4.39 (2.26–8.52) < 0.001 3.38 (2.12–5.37) < 0.001
  Lethargic 2.30 (1.96–2.70) < 0.001 2.18 (1.62–2.93) < 0.001 2.27 (1.87–2.75) < 0.001
  Do not sleep well 2.26 (1.93–2.66) < 0.001 2.06 (1.49–2.85) < 0.001 2.18 (1.81–2.63) < 0.001
  Irritable 1.88 (1.50–2.36) < 0.001 2.63 (1.83–3.77) < 0.001 1.53 (1.15–2.05) 0.004
  Forgetful 3.43 (3.04–3.87) < 0.001 3.00 (2.41–3.75) < 0.001 3.50 (3.03–4.04) < 0.001
  Headache 1.99 (1.60–2.46) < 0.001 1.87 (1.17–2.98) 0.009 1.83 (1.43–2.33) < 0.001
  Dizziness 2.12 (1.75–2.58) < 0.001 2.22 (1.54–3.20) < 0.001 1.96 (1.56–2.46) < 0.001
  Blurred vision 1.66 (1.45–1.90) < 0.001 1.72 (1.34–2.20) < 0.001 1.56 (1.33–1.84) < 0.001
  Difficulty in seeing 2.44 (2.13–2.80) < 0.001 2.53 (1.98–3.24) < 0.001 2.32 (1.97–2.74) < 0.001
  Ringing ears 0.92 (0.76–1.12) 0.424 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 0.558 0.95 (0.74–1.21) 0.677
  Difficulty in hearing 2.60 (2.29–2.94) < 0.001 1.86 (1.47–2.36) < 0.001 3.03 (2.60–3.52) < 0.001
  Palpitations 2.13 (1.75–2.60) < 0.001 1.56 (1.04–2.34) 0.030 2.32 (1.84–2.91) < 0.001
  Short-winded 2.20 (1.84–2.63) < 0.001 2.16 (1.61–2.89) < 0.001 2.39 (1.90–3.00) < 0.001
  Pain in chest 2.11 (1.59–2.79) < 0.001 1.59 (0.91–2.76) 0.102 2.33 (1.68–3.24) < 0.001
  Cough, phlegmatic 2.29 (1.98–2.64) < 0.001 2.85 (2.27–3.56) < 0.001 2.14 (1.76–2.60) < 0.001
  Blocked/runny nose 1.55 (1.28–1.87) < 0.001 1.54 (1.13–2.08) 0.006 1.69 (1.33–2.15) < 0.001
  Wheezing 3.25 (2.56–4.13) < 0.001 3.86 (2.70–5.50) < 0.001 3.15 (2.27–4.37) < 0.001
  Stomach upset/heartburn 1.18 (0.95–1.47) 0.140 1.07 (0.70–1.63) 0.750 1.19 (0.92–1.55) 0.185
  Diarrhoea 2.97 (2.33–3.78) < 0.001 2.53 (1.69–3.80) < 0.001 3.55 (2.61–4.83) < 0.001
  Constipation 2.26 (1.97–2.60) < 0.001 2.53 (2.00–3.21) < 0.001 2.10 (1.77–2.49) < 0.001
  Loss of appetite 3.76 (2.98–4.73) < 0.001 3.49 (2.33–5.24) < 0.001 3.89 (2.93–5.17) < 0.001
  Abdominal pain/stomachache 2.19 (1.67–2.87) < 0.001 2.65 (1.68–4.17) < 0.001 1.94 (1.39–2.73) < 0.001
  Painful/bleeding hemorrhoids 1.68 (1.19–2.36) 0.003 1.91 (1.15–3.18) 0.012 1.69 (1.06–2.69) 0.027
  Toothache 1.22 (0.92–1.62) 0.175 1.29 (0.80–2.06) 0.298 1.20 (0.84–1.72) 0.308
  Swollen/bleeding gums 1.30 (1.00–1.67) 0.046 1.38 (0.90–2.13) 0.142 1.25 (0.91–1.72) 0.159
  Difficulty in chewing 2.32 (1.97–2.72) < 0.001 2.22 (1.67–2.96) < 0.001 2.33 (1.92–2.83) < 0.001
  Rash 1.98 (1.50–2.62) < 0.001 2.05 (1.28–3.27) 0.003 1.97 (1.39–2.79) < 0.001
  Itching 1.93 (1.65–2.27) < 0.001 1.97 (1.53–2.55) < 0.001 2.11 (1.71–2.60) < 0.001
  Joint pain in hands/feet 2.07 (1.83–2.33) < 0.001 1.83 (1.44–2.32) < 0.001 2.00 (1.74–2.30) < 0.001
  Difficulty in limb movement 5.77 (5.14–6.47) < 0.001 6.97 (5.69–8.54) < 0.001 5.01 (4.35–5.77) < 0.001
  Numb limbs 2.53(2.22–2.90) < 0.001 2.70 (2.14–3.39) < 0.001 2.45 (2.08–2.89) < 0.001
  Cold limbs 2.87 (2.48–3.32) < 0.001 3.38 (2.59–4.41) < 0.001 2.51 (2.11–2.99) < 0.001
  Swollen/heavy feet 3.86 (3.37–4.43) < 0.001 4.63 (3.56–6.01) < 0.001 3.31 (2.82–3.88) < 0.001
  Difficulty in/painful urination 2.12 (1.67–2.69) < 0.001 2.10 (1.51–2.91) < 0.001 3.38 (2.34–4.86) < 0.001
  Frequent urination 2.04 (1.76–2.36) < 0.001 1.73 (1.36–2.20) < 0.001 2.65 (2.19–3.19) < 0.001
  Incontinence 5.19 (4.42–6.10) < 0.001 5.47 (4.05–7.38) < 0.001 4.77 (3.94–5.77) < 0.001
  Injury including cut, burn 2.02 (1.26–3.24) 0.004 1.21 (0.44–3.33) 0.718 2.47 (1.43–4.27) 0.001
 Regular hospital visits
 Number of diseases (≥3 vs 0–2) 2.36 (2.13–2.61) < 0.001 2.37 (1.99–2.84) < 0.001 2.32 (2.05–2.63) < 0.001
  Diabetes 1.46 (1.27–1.68) < 0.001 1.70 (1.37–2.11) < 0.001 1.47 (1.22–1.78) < 0.001
  Obesity 1.14 (0.73–1.79) 0.559 1.44 (0.66–3.13) 0.355 0.98 (0.57–1.71) 0.950
  Hyperlipidemia 0.73 (0.61–0.87) < 0.001 1.00 (0.71–1.41) 0.994 0.58 (0.47–0.72) < 0.001
  Thyroid disease 1.27 (0.92–1.76) 0.143 2.96 (1.56–5.63) < 0.001 0.89 (0.61–1.31) 0.564
  Mental illness 2.62 (1.95–3.51) < 0.001 2.40 (1.23–4.67) 0.010 2.40 (1.73–3.34) < 0.001
  Dementia 28.41 (23.42–34.47) < 0.001 26.46 (19.23–36.42) < 0.001 28.97 (22.64–37.07) < 0.001
  Parkinson’s disease 9.38 (6.66–13.23) < 0.001 13.81 (8.34–22.86) < 0.001 7.36 (4.60–11.78) < 0.001
  Other nervous disorders 3.55 (2.67–4.71) < 0.001 4.67 (2.93–7.43) < 0.001 3.00 (2.10–4.28) < 0.001
  Eye disease 1.31 (1.15–1.49) < 0.001 1.37 (1.08–1.74) 0.009 1.22 (1.05–1.42) 0.011
  Ear disease 1.44 (1.10–1.89) 0.008 0.77 (0.41–1.47) 0.432 1.70 (1.26–2.30) < 0.001
  Hypertension 1.05 (0.95–1.17) 0.323 0.83 (0.69–1.01) 0.068 1.16 (1.03–1.32) 0.019
  Stroke 6.26 (5.36–7.31) < 0.001 8.38 (6.73–10.44) < 0.001 6.10 (4.85–7.69) < 0.001
  Ischemic heart disease 1.83 (1.54–2.18) < 0.001 1.56 (1.18–2.06) 0.002 2.40 (1.93–3.00) < 0.001
  Other circulatory diseases 1.77 (1.46–2.14) < 0.001 2.25 (1.69–3.01) < 0.001 1.59 (1.23–2.05) < 0.001
  Cold 1.07 (0.54–2.13) 0.835 1.54 (0.55–4.29) 0.409 0.86 (0.34–2.14) 0.745
  Allergic rhinitis 0.70 (0.48–1.02) 0.060 0.69 (0.35–1.35) 0.277 0.70 (0.44–1.10) 0.121
  COPD 3.45 (2.07–5.73) < 0.001 4.27 (2.32–7.85) < 0.001 4.14 (1.60–10.70) 0.003
  Asthma 1.63 (1.20–2.22) 0.002 2.07 (1.26–3.39) 0.004 1.42 (0.96–2.11) 0.079
  Other respiratory diseases 2.23 (1.71–2.89) < 0.001 2.41 (1.62–3.59) < 0.001 2.34 (1.65–3.34) < 0.001
  Stomach/duodenum disease 0.95 (0.73–1.24) 0.711 0.84 (0.53–1.33) 0.466 1.06 (0.77–1.46) 0.715
  Liver/gall bladder disease 1.48 (1.11–1.97) 0.007 1.60 (1.03–2.50) 0.038 1.52 (1.05–2.22) 0.028
  Other digestive diseases 1.82 (1.41–2.36) < 0.001 1.90 (1.25–2.89) 0.003 1.87 (1.34–2.60) < 0.001
  Dental diseases 0.55 (0.44–0.69) < 0.001 0.55 (0.36–0.82) 0.004 0.55 (0.42–0.74) < 0.001
  Atopic dermatitis 1.45 (0.75–2.80) 0.263 1.45 (0.52–4.02) 0.478 1.63 (0.69–3.87) 0.266
  Other skin disease 1.70 (1.32–2.19) < 0.001 1.79 (1.22–2.61) 0.003 1.89 (1.34–2.66) < 0.001
  Gout 0.68 (0.43–1.08) 0.101 0.71 (0.40–1.24) 0.228 2.22 (0.92–5.37) 0.077
  Rheumatoid arthritis 2.55 (1.93–3.36) < 0.001 1.49 (0.64–3.44) 0.351 2.43 (1.80–3.28) < 0.001
  Arthropathy 1.61 (1.35–1.92) < 0.001 1.16 (0.75–1.80) 0.515 1.55 (1.27–1.89) < 0.001
  Stiff shoulder 0.89 (0.71–1.11) 0.301 1.05 (0.67–1.65) 0.825 0.76 (0.59–0.98) 0.034
  Low back pain 1.44 (1.26–1.64) < 0.001 1.43 (1.11–1.84) 0.006 1.36 (1.16–1.59) < 0.001
  Osteoporosis 2.72 (2.33–3.18) < 0.001 5.34 (3.09–9.22) < 0.001 2.17 (1.84–2.56) < 0.001
  Kidney disease 2.91 (2.32–3.65) < 0.001 2.85 (2.02–4.02) < 0.001 3.48 (2.56–4.73) < 0.001
  Prostatic hyperplasia 1.12 (0.88–1.42) 0.364 1.66 (1.29–2.14) < 0.001
  Menopause or postmenopausal disorders 2.56 (0.87–7.49) 0.087 2.07 (0.71–6.06) 0.185
  Fracture 5.11 (4.01–6.53) < 0.001 4.77 (2.86–7.95) < 0.001 4.76 (3.60–6.30) < 0.001
  Injury other than fracture/burn 1.94 (1.23–3.04) 0.004 1.65 (0.66–4.13) 0.288 1.94 (1.15–3.27) 0.013
  Anemia/blood disorder 2.87 (2.08–3.95) < 0.001 3.28 (1.91–5.62) < 0.001 2.64 (1.78–3.94) < 0.001
  Cancer 0.94 (0.63–1.42) 0.772 0.98 (0.51–1.85) 0.939 1.01 (0.59–1.71) 0.985
 Consult about worries and stress with (yes vs no)
  Family 2.74 (2.47–3.04) < 0.001 2.97 (2.46–3.59) < 0.001 2.48 (2.18–2.81) < 0.001
  Friends/acquaintances 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.261 0.88 (0.57–1.35) 0.563 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.022
  Boss at work/teacher at school 1.18 (0.28–5.01) 0.825 0.00 (0.00- inf) 0.964 2.08 (0.46–9.52) 0.344
  Public institutions 5.52 (4.51–6.75) < 0.001 7.36 (5.30–10.21) < 0.001 4.65 (3.60–6.01) < 0.001
  Doctors 3.42 (3.06–3.83) < 0.001 4.12 (3.41–4.98) < 0.001 3.12 (2.71–3.58) < 0.001
  Other than above 2.41 (1.85–3.15) < 0.001 2.34 (1.45–3.75) < 0.001 2.43 (1.76–3.36) < 0.001
  Cannot consult anyone 1.09 (0.77–1.55) 0.624 1.25 (0.69–2.26) 0.455 1.01 (0.65–1.55) 0.980
  Do not know where to consult 1.26 (0.84–1.87) 0.260 1.32 (0.67–2.60) 0.429 1.24 (0.76–2.02) 0.400
  No need to consult 0.73 (0.60–0.90) 0.002 0.89 (0.65–1.21) 0.446 0.68 (0.53–0.89) 0.004
 K6 total score (≥13 vs < 13) 5.15 (4.31–6.16) < 0.001 6.36 (4.66–8.68) < 0.001 4.46 (3.58–5.55) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: LTC long-term care, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aThe disposable income of a household divided by the square root of the number of people in the household