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Table 1 Basic characteristics of participants aged ≥65 years with and without LTC certification

From: Factors associated with long-term care certification in older adults: a cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative survey in Japan

  Total (n = 23,730) Men (n = 10,418) Women (n = 13,312)
Certified (n = 1718) Non-certified (n = 22,012) Certified (n = 548) Non-certified (n = 9870) Certified (n = 1170) Non-certified (n = 12,142)
Predisposing factors
 Sex
  Men 548 (32%) 9870 (45%) 548 (100%) 9870 (100%)
  Women 1170 (68%) 12,142 (55%) 1170 (100%) 12,142 (100%)
 Age, years
  65–69 111 (6%) 6785 (31%) 59 (11%) 3266 (33%) 52 (4%) 3519 (29%)
  70–74 183 (11%) 5946 (27%) 89 (16%) 2740 (28%) 94 (8%) 3206 (26%)
  75–79 260 (15%) 4745 (22%) 105 (19%) 2099 (21%) 155 (13%) 2646 (22%)
  80–84 380 (22%) 2838 (13%) 144 (26%) 1137 (12%) 236 (20%) 1701 (14%)
  85–89 438 (25%) 1275 (6%) 97 (18%) 514 (5%) 341 (29%) 761 (6%)
  ≥ 90 346 (20%) 423 (2%) 54 (10%) 114 (1%) 292 (25%) 309 (3%)
 Education level
  ≤ 9 years 810 (47%) 6963 (32%) 234 (43%) 2774 (28%) 576 (49%) 4189 (35%)
  > 9 years 686 (40%) 11,703 (53%) 247 (45%) 5593 (57%) 439 (38%) 6110 (50%)
  Missing 222 (13%) 3346 (15%) 67 (12%) 1503 (15%) 155 (13%) 1843 (15%)
Enabling factors
 Equivalent disposable incomea
  < ¥100,000 499 (29%) 5588 (25%) 155 (28%) 2333 (24%) 344 (29%) 3255 (27%)
  ≥ ¥100,000 1132 (66%) 15,268 (69%) 371 (68%) 7020 (71%) 761 (65%) 8248 (68%)
  Missing 87 (5%) 1156 (5%) 22 (4%) 517 (5%) 65 (6%) 639 (5%)
 Type of housing
  Owned 1366 (80%) 18,327 (83%) 432 (79%) 8318 (84%) 934 (80%) 10,009 (82%)
  Rented 352 (20%) 3685 (17%) 116 (21%) 1552 (16%) 236 (20%) 2133 (18%)
 Presence of a spouse
  No 1139 (66%) 6906 (31%) 190 (35%) 1541 (16%) 949 (81%) 5365 (44%)
  Yes 579 (34%) 15,106 (69%) 358 (65%) 8329 (84%) 221 (19%) 6777 (56%)
 Household structure
  Single or Couple-only 806 (47%) 12,493 (57%) 308 (56%) 5872 (59%) 498 (43%) 6621 (55%)
  Others 912 (53%) 9519 (43%) 240 (44%) 3998 (41%) 672 (57%) 5521 (45%)
 Presence of children living separately
  No 602 (35%) 8350 (38%) 196 (36%) 3724 (38%) 406 (35%) 4626 (38%)
  Yes 974 (57%) 11,051 (50%) 301 (55%) 4982 (50%) 673 (58%) 6069 (50%)
  Missing 142 (8%) 2611 (12%) 51 (9%) 1164 (12%) 91 (8%) 1447 (12%)
Need factors
 Subjective symptoms
  0–2 symptoms 827 (48%) 15,509 (70%) 285 (52%) 7114 (72%) 542 (46%) 8395 (69%)
  ≥ 3 symptoms 873 (51%) 6319 (29%) 257 (47%) 2677 (27%) 616 (53%) 3642 (30%)
  Missing 18 (1%) 184 (1%) 6 (1%) 79 (1%) 12 (1%) 105 (1%)
  Fever 35 (2%) 121 (1%) 11 (2%) 46 (0%) 24 (2%) 75 (1%)
  Lethargic 196 (11%) 1171 (5%) 54 (10%) 473 (5%) 142 (12%) 698 (6%)
  Do not sleep well 191 (11%) 1156 (5%) 44 (8%) 403 (4%) 147 (13%) 753 (6%)
  Irritable 91 (5%) 637 (3%) 36 (7%) 258 (3%) 55 (5%) 379 (3%)
  Forgetful 422 (25%) 1916 (9%) 111 (20%) 773 (8%) 311 (27%) 1143 (9%)
  Headache 102 (6%) 679 (3%) 20 (4%) 197 (2%) 82 (7%) 482 (4%)
  Dizziness 128 (7%) 806 (4%) 34 (6%) 287 (3%) 94 (8%) 519 (4%)
  Blurred vision 273 (16%) 2256 (10%) 79 (14%) 884 (9%) 194 (17%) 1372 (11%)
  Difficulty in seeing 283 (16%) 1649 (7%) 84 (15%) 661 (7%) 199 (17%) 988 (8%)
  Ringing ears 113 (7%) 1564 (7%) 37 (7%) 735 (7%) 76 (6%) 829 (7%)
  Difficulty in hearing 355 (21%) 2015 (9%) 89 (16%) 935 (9%) 266 (23%) 1080 (9%)
  Palpitations 123 (7%) 770 (3%) 27 (5%) 318 (3%) 96 (8%) 452 (4%)
  Short-winded 154 (9%) 945 (4%) 56 (10%) 496 (5%) 98 (8%) 449 (4%)
  Pain in chest 59 (3%) 366 (2%) 14 (3%) 161 (2%) 45 (4%) 205 (2%)
  Cough, phlegmatic 242 (14%) 1478 (7%) 107 (20%) 779 (8%) 135 (12%) 699 (6%)
  Blocked/runny nose 130 (8%) 1108 (5%) 49 (9%) 595 (6%) 81 (7%) 513 (4%)
  Wheezing 87 (5%) 356 (2%) 39 (7%) 193 (2%) 48 (4%) 163 (1%)
  Stomach upset/heartburn 90 (5%) 986 (4%) 24 (4%) 406 (4%) 66 (6%) 580 (5%)
  Diarrhoea 84 (5%) 376 (2%) 28 (5%) 206 (2%) 56 (5%) 170 (1%)
  Constipation 277 (16%) 1729 (8%) 91 (17%) 723 (7%) 186 (16%) 1006 (8%)
  Loss of appetite 97 (6%) 346 (2%) 29 (5%) 156 (2%) 68 (6%) 190 (2%)
  Abdominal pain/stomachache 63 (4%) 377 (2%) 22 (4%) 154 (2%) 41 (4%) 223 (2%)
  Painful/bleeding hemorrhoids 38 (2%) 293 (1%) 17 (3%) 163 (2%) 21 (2%) 130 (1%)
  Toothache 54 (3%) 573 (3%) 19 (3%) 269 (3%) 35 (3%) 304 (3%)
  Swollen/bleeding gums 68 (4%) 680 (3%) 23 (4%) 304 (3%) 45 (4%) 376 (3%)
  Difficulty in chewing 196 (11%) 1162 (5%) 58 (11%) 501 (5%) 138 (12%) 661 (5%)
  Rash 59 (3%) 389 (2%) 20 (4%) 180 (2%) 39 (3%) 209 (2%)
  Itching 188 (11%) 1319 (6%) 74 (14%) 727 (7%) 114 (10%) 592 (5%)
  Joint pain in hands/feet 388 (23%) 2730 (12%) 88 (16%) 939 (10%) 300 (26%) 1791 (15%)
  Difficulty in limb movement 518 (30%) 1542 (7%) 160 (29%) 555 (6%) 358 (31%) 987 (8%)
  Numb limbs 301 (18%) 1708 (8%) 100 (18%) 758 (8%) 201 (17%) 950 (8%)
  Cold limbs 251 (15%) 1242 (6%) 73 (13%) 431 (4%) 178 (15%) 811 (7%)
  Swollen/heavy feet 312 (18%) 1200 (5%) 79 (14%) 348 (4%) 233 (20%) 852 (7%)
  Difficulty in/painful urination 82 (5%) 509 (2%) 43 (8%) 386 (4%) 39 (3%) 123 (1%)
  Frequent urination 240 (14%) 1629 (7%) 87 (16%) 974 (10%) 153 (13%) 655 (5%)
  Incontinence 227 (13%) 629 (3%) 60 (11%) 218 (2%) 167 (14%) 411 (3%)
  Injury including cut, burn 20 (1%) 128 (1%) 4 (1%) 60 (1%) 16 (1%) 68 (1%)
 Regular hospital visits
  0–2 diseases 1009 (59%) 16,860 (77%) 325 (59%) 7635 (77%) 684 (58%) 9225 (76%)
  ≥ 3 diseases 697 (41%) 4935 (22%) 217 (40%) 2148 (22%) 480 (41%) 2787 (23%)
  Missing 12 (1%) 217 (1%) 6 (1%) 87 (1%) 6 (1%) 130 (1%)
  Diabetes 253 (15%) 2325 (11%) 112 (20%) 1298 (13%) 141 (12%) 1027 (8%)
  Obesity 21 (1%) 235 (1%) 7 (1%) 88 (1%) 14 (1%) 147 (1%)
  Hyperlipidemia 136 (8%) 2320 (11%) 38 (7%) 685 (7%) 98 (8%) 1635 (13%)
  Thyroid disease 41 (2%) 413 (2%) 11 (2%) 68 (1%) 30 (3%) 345 (3%)
  Mental illness 55 (3%) 274 (1%) 10 (2%) 76 (1%) 45 (4%) 198 (2%)
  Dementia 316 (18%) 173 (1%) 92 (17%) 75 (1%) 224 (19%) 98 (1%)
  Parkinson’s disease 57 (3%) 80 (0%) 27 (5%) 37 (0%) 30 (3%) 43 (0%)
  Other nervous disorders 63 (4%) 233 (1%) 23 (4%) 92 (1%) 40 (3%) 141 (1%)
  Eye disease 311 (18%) 3163 (14%) 87 (16%) 1199 (12%) 224 (19%) 1964 (16%)
  Ear disease 61 (4%) 547 (2%) 10 (2%) 232 (2%) 51 (4%) 315 (3%)
  Hypertension 552 (32%) 6801 (31%) 148 (27%) 3036 (31%) 404 (35%) 3765 (31%)
  Stroke 256 (15%) 598 (3%) 136 (25%) 376 (4%) 120 (10%) 222 (2%)
  Ischemic heart disease 164 (10%) 1195 (5%) 60 (11%) 724 (7%) 104 (9%) 471 (4%)
  Other circulatory diseases 128 (7%) 957 (4%) 57 (10%) 485 (5%) 71 (6%) 472 (4%)
  Cold 9 (1%) 107 (0%) 4 (1%) 47 (0%) 5 (0%) 60 (0%)
  Allergic rhinitis 29 (2%) 528 (2%) 9 (2%) 234 (2%) 20 (2%) 294 (2%)
  COPD 19 (1%) 71 (0%) 13 (2%) 56 (1%) 6 (1%) 15 (0%)
  Asthma 47 (3%) 372 (2%) 18 (3%) 160 (2%) 29 (2%) 212 (2%)
  Other respiratory diseases 68 (4%) 399 (2%) 29 (5%) 224 (2%) 39 (3%) 175 (1%)
  Stomach/duodenum disease 63 (4%) 844 (4%) 20 (4%) 425 (4%) 43 (4%) 419 (3%)
  Liver/gall bladder disease 54 (3%) 471 (2%) 22 (4%) 252 (3%) 32 (3%) 219 (2%)
  Other digestive diseases 68 (4%) 485 (2%) 25 (5%) 243 (2%) 43 (4%) 242 (2%)
  Dental diseases 78 (5%) 1749 (8%) 25 (5%) 797 (8%) 53 (5%) 952 (8%)
  Atopic dermatitis 10 (1%) 88 (0%) 4 (1%) 50 (1%) 6 (1%) 38 (0%)
  Other skin disease 71 (4%) 543 (2%) 31 (6%) 321 (3%) 40 (3%) 222 (2%)
  Gout 19 (1%) 356 (2%) 13 (2%) 328 (3%) 6 (1%) 28 (0%)
  Rheumatoid arthritis 61 (4%) 313 (1%) 6 (1%) 73 (1%) 55 (5%) 240 (2%)
  Arthropathy 150 (9%) 1232 (6%) 22 (4%) 345 (3%) 128 (11%) 887 (7%)
  Stiff shoulder 88 (5%) 1256 (6%) 21 (4%) 361 (4%) 67 (6%) 895 (7%)
  Low back pain 282 (16%) 2639 (12%) 75 (14%) 990 (10%) 207 (18%) 1649 (14%)
  Osteoporosis 214 (12%) 1090 (5%) 17 (3%) 59 (1%) 197 (17%) 1031 (8%)
  Kidney disease 96 (6%) 438 (2%) 40 (7%) 266 (3%) 56 (5%) 172 (1%)
  Prostatic hyperplasia 76 (4%) 873 (4%) 76 (14%) 873 (9%)
  Menopause or postmenopausal disorders 4(0%) 20 (0%) 4 (0%) 20 (0%)
  Fracture 93 (5%) 243 (1%) 19 (3%) 74 (1%) 74 (6%) 169 (1%)
  Injury other than fracture/burn 22 (1%) 146 (1%) 5 (1%) 55 (1%) 17 (1%) 91 (1%)
  Anemia/blood disorder 47 (3%) 213 (1%) 16 (3%) 90 (1%) 31 (3%) 123 (1%)
  Cancer 25 (1%) 339 (2%) 10 (2%) 185 (2%) 15 (1%) 154 (1%)
 Have worries and stress
  No 518 (30%) 12,635 (57%) 153 (28%) 6072 (62%) 365 (31%) 6563 (54%)
  Yes 1151 (67%) 8972 (41%) 371 (68%) 3623 (37%) 780 (67%) 5349 (44%)
  Missing 49 (3%) 405 (2%) 24 (4%) 175 (2%) 25 (2%) 230 (2%)
  Consulting family about worries and stress 630 (37%) 3916 (18%) 178 (32%) 1432 (15%) 452 (39%) 2484 (20%)
  Consulting friends/acquaintances 133 (8%) 1896 (9%) 23 (4%) 480 (5%) 110 (9%) 1416 (12%)
  Consulting boss at work/teacher at school 2 (0%) 22 (0%) 0 (0%) 12 (0%) 2 (0%) 10 (0%)
  Consulting public institutions 142 (8%) 358 (2%) 53 (10%) 146 (1%) 89 (8%) 212 (2%)
  Consulting doctors 515 (30%) 2494 (11%) 182 (33%) 1109 (11%) 333 (28%) 1385 (11%)
  Consulting others 67 (4%) 368 (2%) 20 (4%) 162 (2%) 47 (4%) 206 (2%)
  Cannot consult anyone 35 (2%) 416 (2%) 12 (2%) 178 (2%) 23 (2%) 238 (2%)
  Do not know where to consult 27 (2%) 279 (1%) 9 (2%) 127 (1%) 18 (2%) 152 (1%)
  No need to consult 109 (6%) 1878 (9%) 45 (8%) 930 (9%) 64 (5%) 948 (8%)
 K6 total score
  < 13 1302 (76%) 19,404 (88%) 402 (73%) 8835 (90%) 900 (77%) 10,569 (87%)
  ≥ 13 180 (10%) 521 (2%) 57 (10%) 197 (2%) 123 (11%) 324 (3%)
  Missing 236 (14%) 2087 (9%) 89 (16%) 838 (8%) 147 (13%) 1249 (10%)
  1. Data are presented as N (%)
  2. Abbreviations: LTC long-term care, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. aThe disposable income of a household divided by the square root of the number of people in the household