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Table 2 Comparison of clinical characteristics among different groups based on serum 25(OH) D concentration

From: Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a one sample Mendelian randomization study

  Vitamin D Concentration (nmol/L) P
  Q1(< 28.4) Q2(28.5–36.7) Q3(36.8–45.9) Q4(46.0–57.4) Q5(≥57.5)  
n 476 483 495 468 471  
Age (year, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 59.81 ± 7.04 59.58 ± 7.02 59.97 ± 6.94 59.44 ± 7.18 58.82 ± 7.07 0.070
Female, n (%) 291(61.13) 285(59.00) 301(60.81) 282(60.26) 279(59.24) 0.950
FBG (mmol/L, M (IQU)) 5.80(1.09) 5.69(1.19) 5.68(1.19) 5.60(1.08) 5.49(0.90) 0.002*
Insulin (pmol/L, M (IQU)) 88.24(61.70) 87.96(60.38) 83.15(52.22) 80.78(47.42) 73.24(43.8) < 0.001*
HOMA-IR 1.69(1.12) 1.68(1.09) 1.60(0.94) 1.50(0.88) 1.41(0.82) < 0.001*
TG (mmol/L, M (IQU)) 1.24(0.97) 1.23(0.98) 1.20(0.98) 1.09(0.88) 0.97(0.74) < 0.001*
HDL-c (mmol/L, M (IQU)) 1.21(0.99) 1.24(0.98) 1.24(0.98) 1.28(1.00) 1.35(0.96) < 0.001*
BMI (Kg/m2, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 25.15 ± 3.98 24.92 ± 4.01 25.18 ± 3.87 24.64 ± 3.77 24.44 ± 4.05 0.064
WC (cm, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 86.33 ± 11.09 85.83 ± 10.52 84.86 ± 10.75 81.45 ± 11.04 75.26 ± 10.43 < 0.001*
Hypertension, n (%) 267(56.09) 271(56.11) 273(55.15) 240(51.28) 230(48.83) 0.085
Familial history of diabetes, n (%) 69(14.50) 73(15.11) 72(14.55) 60(12.82) 59(12.53) 0.717
Familial history of CHD, n (%) 120(25.21) 119(24.64) 122(24.65) 117(25.00) 102(21.66) 0.701
  1. *: P < 0.05. Abbreviations BMI body mass index, CHD coronary heart disease, FBG fasting blood glucose, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG triglyceride, WC waist circumference, x¯±SD: mean ± standard deviation; M (IQU): median (interquartile range)