Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants: MS/T2D cases and non-cases (n = 2393)

From: Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a one sample Mendelian randomization study

  MS cases
(n = 746)
MS non-cases (n = 1647) P T2D cases (n = 361) T2D non-cases (n = 2032) P
Age (year, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 61.24 ± 6.41 56.68 ± 6.19 < 0.001* 60.30 ± 6.54 57.71 ± 6.41 < 0.001*
Weight (kg, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 1 64.35 ± 18.41 58.85 ± 18.20 < 0.001* 66.26 ± 18.92 54.87 ± 18.63 < 0.001*
WC (cm, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 1 87.76 ± 10.32 78.75 ± 10.16 < 0.001* 89.86 ± 11.26 76.10 ± 10.97 < 0.001*
BMI (kg/m2, \( \overline{x}\pm SD \)) 1 26.66 ± 4.02 22.47 ± 3.87 < 0.001* 27.62 ± 4.12 21.38 ± 4.06 < 0.001*
WHR (\( \overline{x}\pm SD \))1 0.94 ± 0.14 0.88 ± 0.12 < 0.001* 0.95 ± 0.13 0.87 ± 0.11 < 0.001*
Education (%)1    0.259    0.644
 Illiterate 0.00 100.00   0.00 100.00  
 Primary school 28.48 71.52   12.06 87.94  
 Middle school 30.23 69.77   14.86 85.14  
 High school 32.26 67.74   15.25 84.75  
 Colleges and above 31.86 68.14   15.99 84.01  
Income (yuan/month, %)1   < 0.001*    0.040*
  < 2000 26.53 73.47   13.01 86.99  
 2000- 30.49 69.51   14.33 85.67  
 3500- 31.32 68.68   15.64 84.36  
  ≥ 3500 43.61 56.39   21.10 78.90  
Smoking status (%)1    < 0.001*    0.488
 Never-smokers 26.90 73.10   14.72 85.28  
 Ever smokers 32.69 67.31   13.70 86.30  
 Current smokers 38.89 61.11   16.33 83.67  
Drinking status (%)1    < 0.001*    0.003*
 Never-drinkers 28.87 71.13   14.35 85.65  
 Ever drinkers 47.36 52.64   27.68 72.32  
 Current drinkers 33.18 66.82   14.98 85.02  
Physical activity (%)1   < 0.001*    0.042*
 No 33.00 67.00   15.89 84.11  
 Yes 24.86 75.14   12.31 87.69  
CHD (%)1    0.352    0.729
 No 31.01 68.99   15.03 84.97  
 Yes 37.42 62.58   17.43 82.57  
Familial history of MS/T2D (%)   < 0.001*    0.040*
 No 28.29 71.71   14.40 85.60  
 Yes 44.55 55.45   18.25 81.75  
Vitamin D supplement (%)   0.830    0.849
 No 31.22 68.78   15.09 84.91  
 Yes 29.64 70.36   14.78 85.22  
Calcium supplement (%)   0.585    0.739
 No 31.27 68.73   15.04 84.96  
 Yes 28.88 71.12   16.15 83.85  
  1. Abbreviations: WC waist circumference, BMI body mass index, WHR waist-hip ratio, CHD coronary heart disease, 1: adjusted for age at interview. *: P < 0.05. ANOVA was performed on age at interview, weight, WC, BMI and WHR; the χ2 test was performed on the other variables to compare differences between case and non-case groups