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Table 2 Mixed effect linear regression results of cognitive functioning among older adults for India and China, WHO-SAGE Wave 1 (2007/10)

From: Association of life course socioeconomic status and adult height with cognitive functioning of older adults in India and China

Characteristics Categories India China
β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Mother’s educationa Less than primary 0.85*(−0.04, 1.76) 1.50***(0.69, 2.31)
Completed secondary 1.53***(0.40, 2.66) 0.96**(0.022, 1.90)
Higher secondary (HS) and above 3.07**(0.59, 5.56) 2.17***(0.54, 3.80)
Father’s educationa Less than primary 0.80**(0.18, 1.43) 1.35***(0.76, 1.94)
Completed secondary 1.00***(0.31, 1.68) 1.24***(0.60, 1.88)
Higher secondary (HS) and above 2.53***(1.36, 3.69) 3.50***(2.43, 4.57)
Mother’s employmentb Informal employment 0.38(−0.38, 1.15) − 0.016(− 1.95, 1.92)
Self-employed − 0.29(− 0.94, 0.36) 0.36(− 0.42, 1.15)
Private/public sector − 0.77(−2.11, 0.56) 0.26(− 0.50, 1.02)
Father’s employmentb Informal employment 1.31**(0.038, 2.59) 0.61(−1.15, 2.38)
Self-employed 2.15***(0.93, 3.37) 0.62(−0.17, 1.41)
Private/public sector 2.04***(0.71, 3.37) 0.40(−0.31, 1.11)
Height quintilec 2 0.83**(0.20, 1.46) 0.96***(0.39, 1.52)
3 1.06***(0.42, 1.70) 1.32***(0.76, 1.89)
4 1.38***(0.74, 2.02) 1.63***(1.03, 2.23)
Highest 1.81***(1.15, 2.47) 2.23***(1.60, 2.86)
Schoolinga Less than primary 3.80***(3.11, 4.49) 2.96***(2.39, 3.53)
Completed secondary 5.63***(5.03, 6.23) 5.44***(4.90, 5.99)
Higher secondary (HS) and above 9.28***(8.45, 10.1) 7.82***(7.08, 8.55)
Wealth quintiled Poorer 0.92***(0.24, 1.61) 0.75***(0.18, 1.33)
Middle 1.42***(0.71, 2.13) 1.02***(0.40, 1.64)
Richer 2.01***(1.28, 2.74) 2.28***(1.63, 2.93)
Richest 2.71***(1.93, 3.49) 2.07***(1.34, 2.81)
Own employmentb Informal employment 0.56(−0.16, 1.29) 1.21*(−0.11, 2.54)
Self-employed 0.42(−0.23, 1.07) 0.39(−0.42, 1.21)
Private/public sector 1.21***(0.44, 1.98) 2.47***(1.68, 3.25)
Age (years)   −0.08***(− 0.11, − 0.06) −0.26***(− 0.28, − 0.23)
Gendere Female −2.96***(−3.54, −2.38) −1.57***(− 2.02, −1.12)
Residencef Rural −0.72**(− 1.42, − 0.019) −0.73(− 2.14, 0.68)
Marital statusg Otherwise −1.09***(− 1.60, − 0.57) −0.82***(− 1.33, − 0.31)
Body mass indexh Underweight −0.86***(− 1.31, − 0.40) −0.15(− 1.04, 0.72)
Overweight 0.89***(0.24, 1.54) 0.33*(−0.06, 0.73)
Obesity 0.66(−0.47, 1.80) −0.12(− 0.90, 0.66)
Sleep problems   −0.60*(− 1.25, 0.041) −1.14*(− 2.31, 0.018)
Edentulism   − 0.63**(− 1.23, − 0.038) −1.27***(− 1.87, − 0.66)
Poor self-rated health   −1.52***(− 2.09,-0.95) − 2.03***(− 2.50, − 1.56)
1 + ADL   −1.02***(− 1.47, − 0.56) −2.77***(− 3.38, − 2.17)
Tobacco use   0.08(− 0.36, 0.52) 0.05(−0.44, 0.55)
Alcohol use   −0.99*(− 2.03, 0.035) − 0.29(− 0.83, 0.25)
Physically inactive   −1.31***(− 1.78, − 0.84) 0.03(− 0.36, 0.43)
Self-reported depression −1.35**(− 2.39, − 0.32) −2.81*(−6.04, 0.42)
Random part
 Region   0.84(0.41, 1.73) 1.49(.74, 2.98)
 PSU   1.96(1.70, 2.26) 2.56(2.09, 3.13)
 Individual 7.44 (7.30, 7.58) 9.25(9.13, 9.37)
 Observations 5787 10,934
  1. areference no formal education, breference never worked, creference lowest,dreference poorest,ereference male, freference urban, g reference currently married, h reference normal weight
  2. CI confidence interval*** p < .001, ** p < .005, * p < .01