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Table 3 Risk of developing urinary tract infection and urosepsis according to the severity of frailty of participants

From: Frailty increases the risk for developing urinary tract infection among 79,887 patients with diabetic mellitus and chronic kidney disease

Outcomes Events Person-year Incidence density* Crude Model A& Model B#
HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI
Urinary tract infection         
No FRAIL item 2,934 110,373.7 26.6 1 - 1 - 1 -
1 item 6,314 137,015.7 46.1 1.70 1.63–1.77a 1.19 1.12–1.26a 1.14 1.08–1.21a
2 items 1,778 31,590.2 56.3 2.03 1.92–2.16a 1.24 1.16–1.34a 1.16 1.08–1.25a
≥ 3 items 149 1,723.1 86.5 3.03 2.57–3.58a 1.43 1.21–1.70a 1.28 1.06–1.53b
Per 1 item increase     1.45 1.41–1.49a 1.11 1.08–1.15a 1.07 1.04–1.11a
Urinary tract infection with sepsis         
No FRAIL item 699 110,869.5 6.3 1 - 1 - 1 -
1 item 1,910 138,441.3 13.8 2.20 2.02–2.40a 1.07 0.95–1.19 1.004 0.90–1.12
2 items 559 31,917.7 17.5 2.80 2.51–3.13a 1.13 0.98–1.29 1.005 0.88–1.15
≥ 3 items 53 1782.0 29.7 4.79 3.62–6.33a 1.18 0.88–1.59 1.048 0.77–1.42
Per 1 item increase     1.68 1.60–1.76a 1.06 0.995–1.13 1.008 0.95–1.07
  1. * per 1000 patient-year
  2. & Incorporating all variables in Table 1
  3. # Model A with competing risk analysis for mortality
  4. a p < 0.001
  5. b p < 0.01