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Table 1 Overview of outcomes, outcome measures, instruments and assessment time points

From: Promoting neuroplasticity and neuropsychological functioning in frailty through an app-based sensorimotor training: study protocol for a randomized trial

Outcomes Outcome measures Instruments Assessment time points
Personal information • Age, sex, education, clinical history, medication • Self reports • T0, T1, T2
Frailty assessments • Frailty status (pre-frail, frail)
• Frailty Index
• Frailty Phenotype
• Frailty Index
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1, T2
Brain plasticity in the sensorimotor and somatosensory system • Structural and functional parameters of cortical sensorimotor and somatosensory maps
• MEP peak-to-peak amplitude and latency
• fMRI motor sequence task, fMRI somato-sensory mapping task
• TMS at left primary motor cortex
• T0, T1
• T0, T1
Biological markers of neuroplasticity • BDNF serum blood levels (ng/ml) • Collection of blood samples • T0, T1
Sensorimotor performance • SPPB (total score)
• CTSIB (total score)
• PPT (means)
• SPPB
• CTSIB
• PPT
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
• T0, T1, T2
Sensory functioning • Visual acuity
• Visual contrast sensitivity
• Tactile grating thresholds
• Fine-touch thresholds
• Hearing thresholds
• FrACT
• FrACT
• JVP domes
• Von-Frey filaments
• Audiometer
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
• T0, T1
Cognitive testing • MMSE (total score)
• Mental and motor response speed
• Top-down attentional control
• Visuospatial working memory capacity
• Executive functioning
• MMSE
• RTI
• AST
• SSP
• IED
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
• T0, T1
Functional level and quality of life • Functional level in frailty
• Depression
• Overall health status and quality of life
• Functional capacity in everyday activities
• Falls self-efficacy
• Nutritional status
• FEFA
• CES-D
• SF-36, EQ-5D-5L
• MKS
• FES-I
• MNA
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
• T0, T1, T2
• T0, T1
  1. AST Attention Switching Task, BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CTSIB Clinical Test of Sensory Integration of Balance, EQ-5D-5L EuroQol-5D-5L, FEFA Frail Elderly Functional Assessment, FES-I Falls Efficacy Scale – International Version, fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging, FrACT Freiburg Vision Test, IED Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift, MEP Motor-evoked potential, MKS Marburg Competency Scale (Marburger Kompetenz Skala), MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment, PPT Purdue Pegboard Test, RTI Reaction Time, SF-36 Short Form-36 Health Survey, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, SSP Spatial Span, T0 Baseline assessment, T1 Assessment 1 after 60 days, T2 Assessment 2 after 90 days, TMS Transcranial magnetic stimulation