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Table 1 Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics by functional status (N = 794)

From: Functional status and its associated factors among community-dwelling older adults in rural Nepal: findings from a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total (%) Functional status (%)
Good (n = 728, 91.6 %) Poor (n = 66, 8.3 %) P-value
Age (year)     
  60–69 440 (55.4) 416 (94.6) 24 (5.4) < 0.001
  70–79 235 (29.6) 215 (91.5) 20 (8.5)  
  ≥ 80 119 (15.0) 97 (81.5) 22 (18.5)  
Gender     
  Male 400 (50.4) 372 (93.0) 28 (7.0) 0.177
  Female 394 (49.6) 356 (90.4) 38 (9.6)  
Ethnicity     
  Aadiwasi/Janjatis 298 (37.5) 276 (92.6) 22 (7.4) 0.672
  Brahmin/Chettri/Thakur 69 (8.7) 65 (94.2) 4 (5.8)  
  Dalit 157 (19.8) 142 (90.5) 15 (9.6)  
  Madeshi and others 270 (34.0) 245 (90.7) 25 (9.3)  
Marital status     
  Married 425 (53.5) 400 (94.1) 25 (5.9) 0.008
  Without partnera 369 (46.5) 328 (88.9) 41 (11.1)  
Educational status     
  Without formal education 636 (80.1) 583 (91.7) 53 (8.3) 0.966
  With formal education 158 (19.9) 145 (91.8) 13 (8.2)  
Past occupation     
  Employed 364 (45.8) 351 (96.4) 13 (3.6) < 0.001
  Unemployed 430 (54.2) 377 (87.7) 53 (12.3)  
Family monthly incomeb     
  NRP ≤ 5,000 381 (48.0) 348 (91.3) 33 (8.7) 0.921
  NRP 5,000 - ≤ 10,000 145 (18.3) 134 (92.4) 11 (7.6)  
  NRP > 10,000 268 (33.8) 246 (91.8) 22 (8.2)  
History of smoking     
  No 300 (37.8) 281 (93.7) 19 (6.3) 0.115
  Yes 494 (62.2) 447 (90.5) 47 (9.5)  
History of alcohol drinking     
  No 504 (63.5) 458 (90.9) 46 (9.1) 0.273
  Yes 290 (36.5) 270 (93.1) 20 (6.9)  
Physical activity     
  Inactive 612 (77.1) 557 (91.0) 55 (9.0) 0.207
  Active 182 (22.9) 171 (94.0) 11 (6.0)  
Memory or concentration problem     
  No 486 (61.2) 465 (95.7) 21 (4.3) < 0.001
  Yes 308 (38.8) 263 (85.4) 45 (14.6)  
Depressive symptoms     
  No 351 (44.2) 339 (96.6) 12 (3.4) < 0.001
  Yes 443 (55.8) 389 (87.8) 54 (12.2)  
Hypertension     
  No 541 (68.1) 507 (93.7) 34 (6.3) 0.002
  Yes 253 (31.9) 221 (87.4) 32 (12.7)  
Arthritis     
  No 463 (58.3) 435 (94.0) 28 (6.1) 0.006
  Yes 331 (41.7) 293 (88.5) 38 (11.5)  
Cardiovascular disease     
  No 775 (97.6) 711 (91.7) 64 (8.3) 0.723
  Yes 19 (2.4) 17 (89.5) 2 (10.5)  
Diabetes     
  No 752 (94.7) 689 (91.6) 63 (8.4) 0.778
  Yes 42 (5.3) 39 (92.9) 3 (7.1)  
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease     
  No 672 (84.6) 623 (92.7) 49 (7.3) 0.014
  Yes 122 (15.4) 105 (86.1) 17 (13.9)  
  1. a Widowed/divorced/separated/unmarried. bNRP: Nepali rupee; 1 NRP ~ 100 US dollar. Significant p-values are bolded