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Table 4 Gender-stratified relationship between cognitive &physical measures and anemia; BEH program (n = 2426)

From: Association between anemia, physical performance and cognitive function in Iranian elderly people: evidence from Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) program

Outcome variable Analytic model All Male Female
β (95% CI) P-value β (95% CI) P-value β (95% CI) P-value
Hemoglobin a
Category fluency test (semantic memory) Crude 0.20 (0.09 to 0.32) 0.0001 − 0.02 (− 0.19 to 0.14) 0.781 0.03 (− 0.13 to 0.19) 0.725
Model 1 0.14 (0.02 to 0.25) 0.014 −0.12 (− 0.29 to 0.04) 0.148 − 0.03 (− 0.19 to 0.12) 0.681
Model 2 0.09 (− 0.01 to 0.19) 0.081 0.00 (− 0.15 to 0.16) 0.922 0.07 (− 0.07 to 0.22) 0.343
Model 3 0.06 (−0.04 to 0.17) 0.251 −0.01 (− 0.17 to 0.14) 0.838 0.05 (− 0.09 to 0.20) 0.481
Model 4 0.05 (−0.05 to 0.16) 0.342 −0.07 (− 0.23 to 0.08) 0.365 0.01 (− 0.13 to 0.17) 0. 809
Late recall Crude 0.02 (0.00 to 0.04) 0.028 0.02 (−0.00 to 0.06) 0.140 0.02 (−0.00 to 0.06) 0.112
Model 1 0.03 (0.01 to 0.05) 0.003 0.03 (0.00 to 0.07) 0.029 0.03 (0.00 to 0.07) 0.038
Model 2 0.03 (0.01 to 0.05) 0.003 0.02(−0.01 to 0.05) 0.198 0.02 (−0.00 to 0.06) 0.154
Model 3 0.03 (0.00 to 0.05) 0.011 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.05) 0.169 0.03 (−0.00 to 0.06) 0.094
Model 4 0.03 (0.00 to 0.05) 0.010 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.05) 0.185 0.03 (−0.00 to 0.06) 0.080
Mean hand grip Crude 1.69 (1.49 to 1.89) 0.0001 0.80 (0.53 to 1.07) 0.0001 0.36 (0.18 to 0.53) 0.0001
Model 1 1.56 (1.36 to 1.75) 0.0001 0.52 (0.28 to 0.76) 0.0001 0.25 (0.09 to 0.42) 0.002
Model 2 1.50 (1.32to1.68) 0.0001 0.84 (0.58 to 1.10) 0.0001 0.38 (0.21 to 0. 56) 0.0001
Model 3 1.30 (1.11 to 1.48) 0.0001 0.78 (0.52 to 1.04) 0.0001 0.35 (0.17 to0.52) 0.0001
Model 4 1.30 (1.11 to 1. 48) 0.0001 0.57 (90.31 to 0.83) 0.0001 0.23 (0.06 to 0. 40) 0.006
Relative hand grip Crude 0.06 (0.05 to 0.07) 0.0001 0.02 (0.01 to 0.03) 0.0001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.001
Model 1 0.06 (0.05 to 0.06) 0.0001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.02) 0.019 0.00 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.011
Model 2 0.05 (0.04 to0.06) 0.0001 0.02 (0.01 to 0.03) 0.0001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.0001
Model 3 0.04 (0.03 to 0.05) 0.0001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.0001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.0001
Model 4 0.04 (0.03 to 0.05) 0.0001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.02) 0.0001 0.00 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.004
Walking 4.57 m/s Crude −0.33 (− 0.46 to − 0.19) 0.0001 − 0.14 (− 0.25 to − 0.03) 0.010 − 0.17 (− 0.43 to 0.08) 0.178
Model 1 − 0.24 (− 0.36 to − 0.11) 0.0001 −0.06 (− 0.17 to 0.03) 0.021 − 0.05 (− 0.29 to 0.19) 0.686
Model 2 −0.28 (− 0.41 to-0.14) 0.0001 − 0.15 (− 0.26 to − 0.04) 0.007 −0.20 (− 0.45 to 0.05) 0.118
Model 3 −0.20(− 0.34 to − 0.07) 0.002 −0.14 (− 0.25 to − 0.03) 0.013 −0.14 (− 0.40 to 0.11) 0.285
Model 4 −0.12 (− 0.22 to − 0.01) 0.020 −0.04(− 0.16 to 0.06) 0.376 0.04 (− 0.13 to 0.22) 0.589
  1. The linear regression was used for analysis
  2. a Hemoglobin concentration was used as an independent variable
  3. Model 1 adjusted for age
  4. Model 2 adjusted for education
  5. Model 3 adjusted for age, education level, marital status, BMI, smoking status
  6. Model 4 adjusted for age, education level, marital status, BMI, smoking status, HTN, HbA1c, GFR,Alzehimer’s, Parkinson’s