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Table 3 Sex differential exposure: impacting the sex difference in gait speed in a multivariable association model

From: The sex difference in gait speed among older adults: how do sociodemographic, lifestyle, social and health determinants contribute?

  Beta “sex” [95% CI] b Percentage change c
Full model a − 0.029 [-0.051 ― − 0.008] Reference
Socio-demographic
  Education (high/middle versus low) − 0.032 [-0.054 ― − 0.011] - 10.5 %
Lifestyle
  Alcohol consumption (vs. never) − 0.030 [-0.051 ― − 0.008] - 0.7 %
  Smoking status (vs. never) − 0.028 [-0.048 ― − 0.007] + 6.3 %
  Physical activity (MET hours / week) − 0.027 [-0.048 ― − 0.006] + 8.4 %
  Sleep problems (range 0–9) − 0.028 [-0.050 ― − 0.007] + 4.5 %
  Sleep duration (short/long vs. normal) − 0.030 [-0.051 ― − 0.008] - 0.9 %
  BMI (kg/m2) − 0.030 [-0.052 ― − 0.009] - 3.4 %
Social
  Personal network size (n) − 0.026 [-0.048 ― − 0.005] + 10.8 %
  Living situation (alone vs. not alone) − 0.033 [-0.054 ― − 0.012] - 12.9 %
  Social participation formal (vs. few a year) − 0.029 [-0.050 ― − 0.007] + 2.1 %
  Social participation informal (range 0–42) − 0.028 [-0.050 ― − 0.007] + 3.0 %
  Loneliness (Gierveld scale, range 0–11) − 0.029 [-0.051 ― − 0.008] + 1.1 %
Health
  Chronic diseases (vs. none) − 0.031 [-0.053 ― − 0.010] - 6.4 %
  Pain (vs. no) − 0.037 [-0.059 ― − 0.015] - 25.4 %
  Depressive symptoms (CES-D, range 0–60) − 0.033 [-0.055 ― − 0.012] - 10.0 %
  1. Note: Each row represents the model excluding the indicated determinant
  2. Note: Bold = significant (beta p<0.05, percentage change >5.0 %)
  3. Note: A negative percentage change represents a contributing determinant (the sex difference decreases when adjusted for this determinant) and a positive percentage change represents a suppressing determinant (the sex difference increases) 
  4. Note: To illustrate: Adjusting for pain in a multivariable model causes a decrease of the sex difference (from -.0037 to -0.029). So, pain contributes (25.4 %) to the observed sex difference in gait speed.
  5. a Full model includes birth cohort, age, baseline height and all determinants (column one)
  6. b Represents the regression coefficient for the association between sex (women vs men) and gait speed
  7. c Percentage change is 1 - (Beta “sex” model excluding the indicated determinant) / Beta “sex” full model, representing the change in the sex difference in gait speed when adjusting for the indicated determinant