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Table 2 Sex differential sensitivity: sex stratified multivariable association model with gait speed (m/s) as dependent variable

From: The sex difference in gait speed among older adults: how do sociodemographic, lifestyle, social and health determinants contribute?

  Multivariable model with gait speed (m/s) as dependent variable a
  Men   Women   Interaction b
Determinants Beta [95 % CI] Beta [95 % CI] P-value
Socio-demographic
  Education     - -
    Middle vs. low 0.033 [ 0.004 – 0.063] 0.031 [ 0.008 – 0.054] 0.94
    High vs. low 0.068 [ 0.040 – 0.097] 0.053 [ 0.027 – 0.080] 0.49
Lifestyle
  Alcohol consumption     - -
    Max 2 per day vs. never 0.050 [ 0.017 – 0.083] 0.013 [-0.008 – 0.034] 0.11
    2 + per day vs. never 0.039 [ 0.003 – 0.075] 0.032 [ 0.001 – 0.063] 0.73
  Smoking status     - -
    Former vs. never -0.003 [-0.035 – 0.029] 0.008 [-0.012 – 0.028] 0.73
    Current vs. never -0.019 [-0.056 – 0.018] -0.048 [-0.079 – − 0.017] 0.36
  Physical activity
(MET hours/week)
0.0002 [-0.000 – 0.000] 0.0004 [ 0.000 – 0.001] 0.02
  Sleep problems
(range 0–9)
0.0004 [-0.005 – 0.006] 0.005 [-0.000 – 0.009] 0.03
  Sleep duration     - -
    Short vs. normal -0.015 [-0.043 – 0.014] 0.015 [-0.006 – 0.036] 0.02
    Long vs. normal 0.013 [-0.011 – 0.037] 0.002 [-0.023 – 0.026] 0.40
  BMI (kg/m2) -0.001 [-0.005 – 0.002] -0.006 [-0.008 – − 0.004] 0.02
Social
  Personal network size (n) 0.002 [ 0.001 – 0.003] 0.001 [-0.000 – 0.002] 0.11
  Living situation
(not alone vs. alone)
0.022 [-0.004 – 0.049] 0.001 [-0.019 – 0.020] 0.38
  Social participation formal - - - - -
    Up to few times a month vs few/year 0.012 [-0.012 – 0.036] 0.012 [-0.011 – 0.034] 0.82
    Every week vs. few/year -0.009 [-0.032 – 0.015] 0.012 [-0.009 – 0.034] 0.27
    Every week up to every …day vs. few/year 0.053 [ 0.030 – 0.077] 0.034 [ 0.012 – 0.056] 0.30
  Social participation informal (range 0–42) 0.003 [ 0.001 – 0.005] 0.005 [ 0.003 – 0.007] 0.13
  Loneliness
(Gierveld, range 0–11)
0.002 [-0.003 – 0.006] -0.004 [-0.007 – 0.000] 0.55
Health
  Chronic diseases     - -
    One vs. none 0.006 [-0.019 – 0.030] -0.013 [-0.037 – 0.011] 0.19
    Two vs. none -0.010 [-0.036 – 0.017] -0.013 [-0.039 – 0.014] 0.61
    Three or more vs. none -0.035 [-0.065 – 0.005] -0.034 [-0.062 – − 0.006] 0.52
  Pain      
    Little vs. no -0.040 [-0.067 – − 0.012] -0.005 [-0.027 – 0.018] 0.07
    Some vs. no -0.039 [-0.077 – − 0.002] -0.077 [-0.106 – − 0.049] 0.07
    Much vs. no -0.115 [-0.151 – − 0.078] -0.111 [-0.135 – − 0.086] 0.99
  Depressive symptoms
(CES-D, range 0–60)
-0.004 [-0.006 – − 0.002] -0.003 [-0.004 – − 0.002] 0.22
  1. Note: bold = significant (beta p<0.10)
  2. Note: To illustrate: The association of the determinant BMI with gait speed is stronger for older women compared to older men (p=0.02) in a multivariable model. An increase of one unit BMI (kg/m2) is associated with a decrease in gait speed of 0.006 m/s (95 % CI: -0.008 ― -0.004) in older women and of 0.001 m/s (95 % CI: -0.005 - 0.006) in older men.
  3. a Includes birth cohort, age and baseline height and all determinants (column one)
  4. b All interactions of sex*determinant (indicated by row) are individually tested in the full model