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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the analytical sample (n = 2407) for men and women

From: The sex difference in gait speed among older adults: how do sociodemographic, lifestyle, social and health determinants contribute?

Characteristics Men (50 %) Women (50 %)
Socio-demographic
  Age (years) 66.5 (0.24) 65.6 (0.22)
  Education - -
    Low 22.9 36.5
    Middle 32.0 38.2
    High 45.1 25.3
  Height (m) 1.75 (0.00) 1.63 (0.00)
Physical performance
  Gait speed (m/s) 0.93 (0.01) 0.88 (0.01)
Lifestyle
  Alcohol consumption - -
    None 9.57 20.0
    Light/moderate (up to 2 per day) 57.1 65.9
    Heavy/extreme (more than 2 per day) 33.3 14.1
  Smoking status - -
    Never 10.5 48.3
    Former 58.9 34.9
    Current 30.7 16.8
  Physical activity (MET hours per week) a 57.0 (1.31) 74.8 (1.23)
  Sleep problems (ranging from 0–9) b 5.20 (0.06) 6.10 (0.06)
  Sleep  duration (per 24 h) - -
    Short (less than 7 h) 14.3 20.4
    Normal (between 7 and 9 h) 68.3 65.6
    Long (more than 109 h) 17.4 14.0
  BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 (0.09) 27.4 (0.13)
Social
  Personal network size (range 0–80) c 15.2 (0.26) 15.8 (0.25)
  Living situation (not living alone) 84.0 63.3
  Social participation formal d - -
    Up to few times a year 35.4 23.8
    Few times a year up to few times a month 20.8 20.4
    Few times a month up to every week 21.3 27.3
    Every week up to every day 22.5 28.5
  Social participation informal (range 0–42) e 9.55 (0.15) 9.71 (0.14)
  Loneliness (range 0–11) 1.59 (0.06) 1.81 (0.07)
Health
  Chronic diseases (self-reported) - -
    None 31.1 25.6
    One 35.7 33.2
    Two 20.5 23.8
    Three or more 12.7 17.4
  Pain (in the past week) - -
    No 76.8 66.5
    Little 9.62 12.8
    Some 5.54 6.73
    Much 8.07 13.9
  Depressive symptoms (CES-D, range 0–60) 5.67 (0.17) 8.32 (0.22)
  1. Note: Explanation: mean (sd) or percentage (%)
  2. a Including walking outdoors, light and heavy household activities and two most frequency performed sports
  3. b Combined score of ever having problems with falling asleep, waking through the night and too early
  4. c Count of people with whom you are in contact regularly and are important to you
  5. d Visiting 13 different types of organizations (such as trade union, political party, church, hobby club etc.)
  6. e Combined score of 6 recreational trips (museum, restaurant etc.) with a frequency from never to every day