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Table 2 Relative hazards of subsequent mortality by sleep duration (per day) and vegetable consumption, CLHLS, the 2008–2014 panel

From: Sleep duration, vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality among older adults in China: a 6-year prospective study

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V
Sleeping hours/day
  ≤ 5 h (7–8) 1.18***   1.15*** 1.15*** 1.08*
 6 h (7–8) 1.14***   1.13** 1.12** 1.08*
 9 h (7–8) 1.06   1.07 1.08 1.09+
  ≥ 10 h (7–8) 1.30***   1.29*** 1.27*** 1.18***
Frequency of vegetable consumption
 High (low)   0.78*** 0.80*** 0.82*** 0.91*
Covariates
Demographics
  Age (mean, years) 1.08*** 1.08*** 1.07*** 1.07*** 1.06***
  Men (women) 1.24*** 1.25*** 1.34*** 1.44*** 1.52***
  Urban (rural) 0.88*** 0.89*** 0.94* 0.97 0.93**
Socioeconomic factors
 1+ years of schooling (0)    0.95 0.97 1.02
 Economic independence (no)    0.71*** 0.77*** 0.78***
 Professional occupation (no)    1.09+ 1.11* 1.07
 Access to healthcare (no)    0.90** 0.91* 0.95
Family/Social support
 Currently married (no)     0.80*** 0.81***
 Close proximity to children (no)     1.09* 1.07*
Health practice
 Doing regular exercise (no)     0.92* 0.96
 Currently smoking (no)     0.69*** 0.78***
Health condition
 ADL disabled (no)      1.60***
 Cognitively impaired (no)      1.47***
 Self-reported good health (no)      1.16***
N (observations) 20,774 20,774 20,774 20,774 20,774
 -log likelihood 15,763.3*** 15,997.0*** 15,681.2*** 15,566.0*** 15,209.9***
  1. Note: Relative hazards were obtained from parametric survival analyses. The category of each variable in the parentheses is the reference group of that variable. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, +p < 0.1