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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of social robots for older adults and people with dementia: a scoping review

Author Country Publication type Methodology Study design Study participants Study setting
Aaltonen et al., 2017 [38] Finland Conference paper Qualitative Qualitative interviews, observations Older person, care staff, family members Participants’ homes
Bajones et al., 2018 [39] Austria, Greece, Sweden Journal paper Multi-method Field trial Older people (living alone, fallen in the last 2 years, and impairments in mobility, Participants’ homes
Bajones et al., 2019 [40] Austria, Greece, Sweden Journal paper Multi-method Field trial Older people (living alone) Participants’ homes
Barrett et al., 2019 [41] Ireland Journal paper Quantitative Single group, pre-post pilot study People with dementia Nursing home
Bemelmens et al., 2016 [42] Netherlands Journal paper Multi-method Feasibility study People with dementia, care staff, family members Care institution for psychogeriatric care
Blond, 2019 [43] Denmark, Finland Journal paper Qualitative Ethnographic study Older adults, care staff, management staff Elderly care center
Bradwell et al., 2020 [44] UK Conference paper Qualitative Longitudinal study Older people Supported living facility
Broadbent et al., 2014 [45] New Zealand Conference paper Quantitative Repeated measures randomised cross-over trial Older people Participants’ homes
Caleb-Solly et al., 2018 [46] UK, Netherlands Journal paper Quantitative Usability and user experience evaluation Older people Assisted living studio, residential care, and participants’ homes
Carros et al., 2020 [47] Germany Conference paper Qualitative Pre and post interviews Older people, caregivers and manager Care home
Chang et al., 2013 [48] USA Conference paper Multi-method Observations and interview Older people, care staff Retirement community (long- and short-term care)
Chang et al., 2015 [49] USA Conference paper Multi-method Field study Older people (majority had dementia), staff, visitors Nursing home
Cruz-Sandoval et al., 2018 [50] Mexico Conference paper Quantitative Observational Older people with dementia Geriatric residence
de Graaf et al., 2015 [51] UK Journal paper Qualitative Exploratory in-depth study using video recording and interviews Older people Participants’ homes
Demange et al., 2018 [52] France Journal paper Quantitative Quasi-experimental (pre-post) Older people with dementia Hospital
D’Onofrio et al., 2019 [53] Italy Conference paper Quantitative Pre-post Older people with dementia Hospital
D’Onofrio et al., 2019 [53] Italy, Ireland and UK Journal paper Quantitative Pre-post People with dementia Community setting, nursing home and hospital
Fattal et al., 2020 [54] France Journal paper Quantitative Pre-post Older people Hospital
Fiorini et al., 2020 [55] Italy Conference paper Quantitative Pre-post Older people Participants’ homes
Gross et al., 2012 [56] Netherlands Belgium Conference paper Qualitative Field trial Older people with mild cognitive impairment and their partner Smart home (Test home)
Gross et al., 2015 [57] Germany Conference paper Multi-method Case study Older people Participants’ homes
Gross et al., 2019 [58] Germany Conference paper Multi-method Case study Older people Participants’ homes
Hebesberger et al., 2017 [59] Austria Journal paper Mixed method Concurrent multistrand research design Older people with dementia, care staff and management staff Hospital
Hudson et al., 2020 [60] USA Journal paper Qualitative Descriptive qualitative Older people Participants’ homes
Huisman and Kort, 2019 [61] Netherlands Journal paper Mixed method Evaluation study Older adults, care staff and board members Geriatric care facilities
Kelly et al., 2020 [62] USA Journal paper Quantitative Feasibility study Older people with dementia Hospital (acute care)
Khosla et al., 2017 [63] Australia Journal paper Quantitative Cross-sectional Older people with dementia Residential aged care facilities
Khosla et al., 2019
(Australia) [64]
Australia Journal paper Mixed method Observational People with dementia, family members Participants’ homes
Klamer et al., 2010 [65] UK Conference paper Qualitative Case study Older people Participants’ homes
Kolstad et al., 2020 [66] Japan Journal paper Qualitative Semi structured interviews Older people, nursing staff and site managers Two nursing homes and one elderly day care centre
Kouroupetroglou et al., 2017 [67] Italy, Ireland Conference paper Quantitative Questionnaire People with dementia Hospital and nursing home
Melkas et al., 2020 [68] Finland Journal paper Qualitative Field study Older people, care staff 2 care homes and a geriatric rehabilitation hospital
Moyle et al., 2013 [69] Australia Conference paper Qualitative Case study Older people with dementia Nursing home
Moyle et al., 2014 [70] Australia Journal paper Mixed method Semi structured interviews and observational data Older people with dementia, care staff, family members Long term care facilities
Moyle et al., 2016 [71] Australia Journal paper Qualitative Case study Older people with dementia Nursing home
Moyle et al., 2019 [72] Australia Journal paper Qualitative Descriptive qualitative Family members of older people who live in residential care Residential care facilities
Moyle et al., 2019 [73] Australia Journal paper Qualitative Descriptive qualitative Older people with dementia Long term care facility
Moyle et al., 2019 [74] Australia Journal paper Qualitative Descriptive qualitative People with dementia, family members Long term care facility
Niemala et al., 2017 [75] Finland Conference paper Qualitative Pre-post interviews, user observations, logged use of robot, videotaping Older people Long term residential home
Niemala et al., 2019 [76] Finland Journal paper Multi-method Field trial Older people, care staff, family members Residential care facilities
Orejana et al., 2015 [77] New Zealand Conference paper Multi-method Case study Older people Participants’ homes
Peri et al., 2016 [78] New Zealand Journal paper Quantitative Controlled non-randomised comparison study (Observational) Older people, care staff, visitors Retirement complex (Residential care ward)
Piasek and Wieczororwska-Tobis, 2018 [79] Poland Journal paper Quantitative Pre-post Older people with mild cognitive impairment, family members Laboratory setting and participants’ homes
Pike et al., 2020 [80] UK Journal paper Qualitative Multiple case study Older people with dementia, family members Participants’ homes
Portugal et al., 2019 [81] Netherlands Journal paper Multi-method Observation and post- questionnaire Older people, care staff, visitors Care center
Pu et al., 2020 [82] Australia Journal paper Qualitative Descriptive qualitative Older people with dementia Residential aged care facility
Randall et al., 2019 [83] USA Journal paper Multi-method Pre-post focus groups, survey Older people Participants’ homes
Sabelli et al., 2011 [84] Japan Conference paper Qualitative Ethnographic study Older people, care staff Elderly care center
Schroeter et al., 2013 [85] Netherlands Belgium Journal paper Multi-method Semi-structured interviews, observation, diary, questionnaire Older people with mild cognitive impairment and their partner Smart home (Test home)
Torta et al., 2014 [86] Austria Journal paper Multi-method Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews Older people Test setting (In a Senior centre)
van Maris et al., 2020 [87] UK Journal paper Multi-method Questionnaire and interviews Older people Retirement villages
Wu et al., 2014 [88] France Journal paper Multi-method Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews Older people (cognitively healthy and those with mild cognitive impairment) Test setting (In the Gerontechnology living lab in a hospital)
Zsiga et al., 2018 [89] Hungary Journal paper Quantitative Field test Older people Participants’ homes