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Table 1 Baseline variables

From: Malnutrition is not related with emergence delirium in older patients after noncardiac surgery

Variables All patients
(n = 915)
Control group
(n = 425)
Malnutrition group (n = 490) P
Age, year, mean ± SD 71.6 ± 5.2 69.3 ± 4.2 73.6 ± 5.2 < 0.001
≥75 years, n (%) 264 (28.9 %) 61(14.4 %) 203(41.1 %) < 0.001
Male, n (%) 548 (59.9 %) 180(44.0 %) 310(56.0 %) 0.025
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 24.2 ± 3.5 25.2 ± 3.0 23.2 ± 3.6 < 0.001
Preoperative comorbidity, n (%)     
Stroke 52 (5.7 %) 14(3.3 %) 38(7.8 %) 0.004
Hypertension 475 (51.9 %) 226(53.2 %) 249(50.8 %) 0.476
Coronary heart disease 129 (14.1 %) 61(14.4 %) 68(13.9 %) 0.837
Arrhythmia 57 (6.2 %) 26(6.1 %) 31(6.3 %) 0.896
Pulmonary disease a 66 (7.2 %) 27(6.4 %) 39(8.0 %) 0.349
Diabetes 219 (23.9 %) 108(25.4 %) 111(22.7 %) 0.329
Hyperlipidemia 95 (10.4 %) 49(11.5 %) 46(9.4 %) 0.290
Hepatic dysfunction b 45 (4.9 %) 14(3.3 %) 31(6.3 %) 0.034
Malignant tumor c 105 (11.5 %) 37(8.7 %) 68(13.9 %) 0.014
Chronic smoking d 223 (24.4 %) 105(24.7 %) 118(24.1 %) 0.826
Cognitive impairment e 597 (65.2 %) 260(61.2 %) 337(68.8 %) 0.016
History of surgery, n (%) 491(53.7 %) 221(52.0 %) 270(55.1 %) 0.881
CCI, median (IQR)e 2 (2,3) 2(2,3) 3(2,3) < 0.001
ASA classification, n (%)     0.001
Class II 678 (74.0 %) 336(79.1 %) 342(69.8 %)  
Class III 237 (26.0 %) 89(20.9 %) 148(30.2 %)  
Laboratory tests,     
Albumin, g/L, mean ± SD 40.6 ± 4.7 41.7 ± 3.3 39.6 ± 5.5 < 0.001
<30 g/L, n (%) 22(2.4 %) 0(0.0 %) 22(4.5 %) < 0.001
Creatinine, µmol/L, mean ± SD 80.2 ± 20.9 77.4 ± 18.7 82.5 ± 22.3 0.004
Glucose, mmol/L, mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.7 6.0 ± 1.6 6.1 ± 1.8 0.332
Hematocrit, %, mean ± SD 39.4 ± 5.3 40.8 ± 4.7 38.2 ± 5.5 0.002
Barthel index, median (IQR) f 100 (100,100) 100 (95,100) 100 (100,100) 0.606
NRS 2002, median (IQR) 3 (2,4) 2 (1,2) 3 (3,5) < 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, IQR interquartile range, ASA American Society of Anesthesiology, NRS 2002 nutritional risk screening 2002
  2. a Pulmonary disease included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma
  3. b Hepatic dysfunction was defined as Alanine transaminase and/or aspartate transaminase higher than 5 times of the upper normal limit
  4. c Malignant tumor was defined as carcinoma (carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma), sarcoma and undifferentiated carcinoma
  5. d Chronic smoking was defined as half a pack of cigarettes per day for at least 2 years
  6. e Cognitive impairment was defined as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score less than 27
  7. f Barthel index was used to assess activity of daily life (0-100 score, and higher score indicates better activity)