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Table 1 Patients characteristic and Univariate associations with AAD

From: Clinical characteristics and factors related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea in elderly patients with pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Variable All (n=1,067) AAD (n=322) non-AAD (n=745) p values
no (%) or mean ± SD or median [IQR]
Age, year 83 ± 8 85 ± 8 83 ± 8 0.0001
Male 627 (59) 180 (56) 447 (60) 0.21
Body weight, kg 47.3 ± 11.3 45.8 ± 10.2 48.0 ± 11.7 0.005
Body mass index, kg/m2 20.0 ± 6.3 19.6 ± 3.8 20.0 ± 3.9 0.12
History of smoking 468 (44) 127 (39) 341 (46) 0.056
Alcohol habits 236 (22) 59 (18) 177 (24) 0.045
ADL
 Ambulatory 682 (64) 184 (57) 498 (67) 0.003
 Bedridden 110 (10) 35 (11) 75 (10) 0.69
 Oral nutrition 1,018 (95) 304 (94) 714 (96) 0.31
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 297 (28) 85 (26) 212 (29) 0.49
 Hypertension 536 (50) 152 (47) 384 (52) 0.19
 Cerebrovascular diseases 322 (30) 111 (35) 211 (28) 0.045
 Ischemic heart diseases 146 (14) 44 (14) 102 (14) 0.99
 Heart failure 325 (31) 114 (35) 211 (28) 0.021
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases 254 (24) 64 (20) 190 (26) 0.048
 Chronic kidney diseases 64 (6.0) 26 (8.1) 38 (5.1) 0.06
 Dementia 419 (39) 142 (44) 277 (37) 0.03
 Cancer 253 (24) 79 (25) 174 (23) 0.68
Vital signs
 Body temperature, °C 38.0 ± 0.9 38.0 ± 0.9 38.0 ± 0.9 0.54
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 150 ± 25 151 ± 25 150 ± 25 0.72
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 87 ± 17 87 ± 17 87 ± 18 0.84
 Heart rate, /min 103 ± 21 103 ± 22 102 ± 21 0.51
 Respiratory rate, /min 29 ± 7 29 ± 7 29 ± 7 0.94
Laboratory data
 White blood cell count, /μL 9,490 [7,260 - 12,850] 9,430 [7,120 - 12,960] 9,540 [7,320 - 12,730] 0.72
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 11.8 [10.5 - 13.1] 11.5 [10.4 - 12.8] 11.8 [10.6 - 13.2] 0.001
 Platelet cell count, x104/μL 18.9 [14.7 - 24.2] 19.2 [14.9 - 24.4] 18.8 [14.7 - 24.1] 0.63
 Total protein, g/dL 6.6 [6.1 - 7.0] 6.5 [6.1 - 7.0] 6.6 [6.1 - 7.0] 0.24
 Albumin, g/dL 3.2 [2.8 - 3.6] 3.1 [2.8 - 3.5] 3.3 [2.9 - 3.6] 0.0008
 Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dL 18.7 [13.8 - 26.5] 20.0 [14.7 - 27.6] 18.2 [13.5 - 25.7] 0.01
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.76 [0.57 - 1.06] 0.79 [0.57 - 1.10] 0.74 [0.57 - 1.03] 0.26
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 6.91 [2.66 - 12.79] 7.45 [2.69 - 13.25] 6.82 [2.65 - 12.55] 0.74
CURB65     0.06
 1 197 (18) 47 (15) 150 (20)  
 2 461 (43) 132 (41) 329 (44)  
 3 303 (29) 104 (32) 199 (27)  
 4 102 (9.6) 38 (12) 64 (8.6)  
 5 4 (0.4) 1 (0.3) 3 (0.4)  
Antibiotics
 β-Lactamase inhibitors 703 (66) 233 (72) 470 (63) 0.003
  Ampicillin/sulbactam 701 (66) 233 (72) 468 (63)  
  Piperacillin/tazobactam 8 (0.8) 4 (1.2) 4 (0.5)  
 Non β-Lactamase inhibitors 626 (59) 181 (56) 445 (60) 0.28
  Ceftriaxone 390 (37) 107 (33) 283 (38)  
  Meropenem 47 (4.4) 25 (7.8) 22 (3.0)  
  Macrolides 101 (9.5) 25 (7.8) 76 (10)  
  Clindamycin 35 (3.3) 17 (5.3) 18 (2.4)  
  Levofloxacin 31 (2.9) 8 (2.4) 23 (3.1)  
  Othersa 189 (18) 67 (21) 122 (21)  
Multiple antibiotics 714 (67) 223 (69) 491 (66) 0.29
Drugs
 Proton pump inhibitors 508 (48) 171 (53) 337 (45) 0.02
 Immunosuppressants 363 (34) 102 (32) 261 (35) 0.29
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 117 (11) 44 (14) 73 (9.8) 0.06
 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 54 (5.1) 15 (4.7) 39 (5.2) 0.69
 Calcium channel blockers 169 (16) 41 (13) 128 (17) 0.07
 Beta-blockers 98 (9.2) 33 (10) 65 (8.7) 0.43
 Psychotropics 207 (19) 72 (22) 135 (18) 0.11
 Drugs for hyperuricemia 62 (5.8) 22 (6.8) 40 (5.4) 0.35
Sputum culture 954 (89) 289 (90) 665 (89) 0.81
 Positive culture 146 (15) 33 (11) 113 (17) 0.03
Hospital course
 AAD 322 (30)    
  Duration until AAD, days   6 [3 - 10]   
  Duration of AAD, days   4 [2 - 8]   
 Length of hospital stay, days 13 [9 - 21] 17 [12 - 29] 11 [8 - 18] <0.0001
 Death 88 (8.2) 22 (6.8) 66 (8.9) 0.27
  1. aAmpicillin, Amoxicillin, Cefmetazole, Cefalexin, Cefazolin, Daptomycin, Gentamicin, Micafungin, Metronidazole, Rifampicin, Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim, Vancomycin, AAD: antibiotic-associated diarrhea