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Table 2 Characteristics of QoL instruments

From: Instruments used to assess quality of life of older adults in African countries: a scoping review

QOL instrument No. of studies No. items Domains Reliability Validity Languages Mode of
administration
Answer categories
EUROHIS-QOL-8 [14,15,16,17,18,19,20] 7 8 • physical;
• psychological;
• social;
• environmental
ND for study cohorts under consideration ND for study cohorts under consideration • Shangaan [14, 17]
• Xitsonga [18]
• Local language Nairobi (Kenya) [15, 16]
• Local language in Agincourt (South-Africa) [20]
• Kiswahili [19]
• IA [14,15,16,17,18,19,20] 5- point Likert scale
SLWS [21,22,23] 3 5 Satisfaction with life as a whole Internal reliability:
• α = 0.82 [21]
• α = 0.81 [22]
• α = 0.92 [23]
• Good content validity based on expert meeting [21]
• ND [22, 23]
• Wolof [21]
• Yoruba [22]
• Portugese [23]
• IA [21]
• ND [22]
• IA/SA [23]
7-point Likert scale
WHOQOL-OLD [24, 25] 2 24 • sensory abilities
• autonomy
• past, present, and future activities
• social participation
• death and dying
• intimacy
• Per domain α ranging from 0.72 to 0.84 [24]
• ND for this study cohort [25]
• Good factor structure [24]
• ND for this study cohort [25]
• Afrikaans [24]
• Unknown [25]
• SA/IA [24]
• IA [25]
5-point Likert scale
WHOQOL-BREF [26, 27] 2 26 • physical;
• psychological;
• social;
• environmental
• Internal consistency each domain α > 0.67 [26]
• Cronbach α > 0.86 [27]
ND for this study cohort [26, 27] • Sesotho [26]
• Yoruba [27]
• IA [26]
• SA/IA [27]
5- point Likert scale
SF-36 [28, 29] 2 36 • physical health
o physical functioning
o physical role limitation
o bodily pain
o general health
• mental health:
o vitality
o social functioning,
o role limitation due to emotional problems
o mental health
ND for this cohort [28, 29] ND for this cohort [28, 29] • Unknown [28] • IA [28] Mix of 5 / 3 – point Likert scale and yes/no answers
SF-12 [30] 1 12 • physical health
o physical functioning
o physical role limitation
o bodily pain
o general health
• mental health:
o vitality
o social functioning,
o role limitation due to emotional problems
Internal reliability:
• Physical health α = 0.76
• mental health α = 0.74 [30]
• Construct validity good (differences between subgroups)
• convergent validity good: (r > 0.40) [30]
Tunisian [30] IA [30] Mix of 5 / 3 – point Likert scale and yes/no answers
RAND-36 [12] 1 36 • physical functioning
• bodily pain
• limitation because of physical health problems
• role limitation because of personal or emotional problems
• emotional well-being
• social functioning,
• energy or fatigue
• general health perception.
Not assessed (only refer to reliability of SF-36 tested in Ghanese setting where α = 0.82) [12] Description of adequate face and content validity [12] Setswana and isiZulu [12] IA [12] Mix of 5 / 3 – point Likert scale and yes/no answers
  1. ND Not Described; IA Interviewer Administered; SA Self-Administered; EUROHIS-QOL-8 WHOQOL World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale; SWLS Satisfaction with Life Scale; WHOQOL-OLD World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale- OLD version; WHOQOL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale- brief version; SF-36 Short-Form Health Survey-36 item; SF-12 Short-Form Health Survey 12-item