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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Serum sodium in relation to various domains of cognitive function in the elderly US population

Characteristics Mean ± SD or N(%)
No of participants 2541
Sex  
 Male 1236 (48.6 %)
 Female 1305 (51.4 %)
Age at interview (year) 69.6 ± 6.8
Ethnicity  
 Non-Hispanic white 1252 (49.3 %)
 Non-Hispanic black 573 (22.6 %)
 Hispanic 477 (18.8 %)
 Others 239 (9.4 %)
Annual Family Income  
 Less than $20,000 640 (25.2 %)
 $20,000 and over 1901 (74.8 %)
Education  
 Less than high school 645 (25.4 %)
 High school graduate 600 (23.6 %)
 More than high school 1296 (51.0 %)
Marital status  
 Married 1395 (54.9 %)
 Never married 146 (5.8 %)
 Widowed/divorced/separated 1000 (39.4 %)
Smoking history  
 Never smoked 329 (13.0 %)
 Ex-Smoker 954 (37.5 %)
 Current Smoker 1258 (49.5 %)
Alcohol consumptiona  
 Yes 1729 (68.0 %)
 No 812 (32.0 %)
Physical Activityb  
 Yes 985 (38.8 %)
 No 1556 (61.2 %)
BMI (kg/m2)  
 Underweight (< 18.5) 35 (1.4 %)
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 653 (25.7 %)
 Overweight (25.0-29.9) 899 (35.4 %)
 Obesity (> 30) 954 (37.5 %)
CKD-EPI eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2 73.4 ± 19.8
Serum glucose, mg/dL 112.4 ± 43.0
Diuretic use 478 (18.8 %)
Diabetes 617 (24.3 %)
Cardiovascular diseasec 383 (15.1 %)
Stroke 173 (6.8 %)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 242 (9.5 %)
Thyroid disease 434 (17.1 %)
Liver disease 143 (5.6 %)
  1. a Response to the question: “In any one year, have you had at least 12 drinks of any type of alcoholic beverage?”
  2. b Response to the question: “In a typical week do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness, or recreational activities that cause a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, bicycling, swimming, or volleyball for at least 10 minutes continuously?”
  3. c Defined as a history of heart failure, coronary heart disease, or angina