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Table 1 Characteristics of PIC and care recipients in total, high and low burden groups

From: Profile and needs of primary informal caregivers of older patients in Belgian geriatric day hospitals: a multicentric cross-sectional study

Caregivers characteristics n Total (n = 475) ZBI-12 ≥ 13 (n = 181) ZBI-12 < 13 (n = 270) p-value
Age (mean ± SD)
 Total 474 64 ± 14 63 ± 12 63 ± 14 0.741
 Adult children 255 57 ± 8 57 ± 7 57 ± 8 0.651
 Spouses 145 79 ± 7 77 ± 7 80 ± 6 0.037
Gender (females) n (%) 475 342 (72) 131 (77) 185 (69) 0.072
CR relationship n (%) 474     0.421
 Child   255 (54) 102 (57) 145 (54)  
 Spouse   145 (31) 57 (32) 74 (28)  
 Friend   17 (4) 3 (2) 12 (4)  
 Nephew/Niece   12 (3) 5 (3) 6 (2)  
 Sibling   3 (1) 1 (1) 2 (1)  
 Neighbour   2 (0.5) 0 2 (1)  
 Other   40 (8) 12 (7) 27 (10)  
Educational level n (%) 459     0.102
 Illiterate   3 (1) 0 (0) 3 (1)  
 Primary school   44 (9.5) 10 (6) 24 (10)  
 Secondary school   108 (23.5) 40 (23) 62 (24)  
 High school degree   143 (31) 55 (31) 85 (33)  
 Higher education   115 (25) 54 (31) 54 (21)  
 University degree   46 (10) 17 (10) 28 (11)  
Professional Status n (%) 470     0.238
 Retired   210 (45) 69 (39) 123 (46)  
 Active   159 (34) 72 (40) 84 (32)  
 Not active (at home, invalid, or unemployed)   93 (20) 34 (19) 54 (20)  
 Other   8 (2) 4 (2) 4 (1.5)  
Monthly financial income level in Euros n (%) 386     0.247
  < 500   2 (0.5) 0 (0) 2 (1)  
 500–1000   8 (2) 3 (2) 5 (2)  
 1000–1500   87 (23) 36 (23) 49 (23)  
 1500–2000   82 (21) 29 (18) 49 (23)  
 2000–2500*   73 (19) 35 (22) 34 (16)  
 2500–3000*   56 (15) 28 (18) 26 (12)  
  > 3000*   78 (20) 27 (17) 50 (23)  
Living with the care recipient n (%) 464     
 Total group   201 (43) 86 (48) 104 (39) 0.063
 Children   52 (21) 27 (27) 24 (17) 0.068
 Spouses   128 (91) 51 (93) 67 (91) 0.758
Number of persons assisted median [IQR] 455 1 [1–10]* 1 [1–10] 1 [1–10] 0.682
Care recipients’ characteristics
Age in years (mean ± SD) 474 84 ± 5 84 ± 5 84 ± 5 0.144
Gender (female) n (%) 473 314 (66) 119 (66) 184 (68) 0.652
Memory impairment n (%) 452 333 (74) 146 (84) 171 (66) <  0.001
Mood disorder n (%) 452 178 (39) 106 (62) 63 (24) <  0.001
Behavioral disorder n (%) 452 97 (21) 66 (38) 26 (10) <  0.001
Acceptance of aid in general n (%) 408 325 (80) 112 (68) 204 (88) <  0.001
Acceptance of professional help n (%) 416 293 (70) 90 (56) 195 (81) <  0.001
  1. PIC Primary Informal Caregivers - ZBI-12: Zarit Burden Index – *[min 1-max 13]