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Table 2 General characteristics of study population at baseline (2006→2008) (N=7,856)

From: Association between successful aging transitions and depressive symptoms among older Korean adults: findings from the Korean longitudinal study of aging (2006–2018)

Variables Total Men Total Women  
Depressive symptoms (CES-D10 ≥3) P-value Depressive symptoms (CES-D10 ≥3) P-value
Yes No Yes No
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total 3,463 (100.0) 1,645 (47.5) 1,818 (52.5)   4,393 (100.0) 2,639 (60.1) 1,754 (39.9)  
Change in successful aging        <.0001        <.0001
 NSA→ NSA 1,273 (36.8) 792 (62.2) 481 (37.8)   1,793 (40.8) 1,326 (74.0) 467 (26.0)  
 SA→NSA 501 (14.5) 279 (55.7) 222 (44.3)   562 (12.8) 358 (63.7) 204 (36.3)  
 NSA→SA 469 (13.5) 182 (38.8) 287 (61.2)   592 (13.5) 314 (53.0) 278 (47.0)  
 SA→SA 1,220 (35.2) 392 (32.1) 828 (67.9)   1,446 (32.9) 641 (44.3) 805 (55.7)  
Age        <.0001        <.0001
 45-54 911 (26.3) 345 (37.9) 566 (62.1)   1,225 (27.9) 559 (45.6) 666 (54.4)  
 55-64 1,045 (30.2) 432 (41.3) 613 (58.7)   1,201 (27.3) 650 (54.1) 551 (45.9)  
 ≥ 65 1,507 (43.5) 868 (57.6) 639 (42.4)   1,967 (44.8) 1,430 (72.7) 537 (27.3)  
Education level        <.0001        <.0001
 Lower than middle school 1,076 (31.1) 644 (59.9) 432 (40.1)   2,490 (56.7) 1,726 (69.3) 764 (30.7)  
 Middle school graduate 596 (17.2) 292 (49.0) 304 (51.0)   724 (16.5) 391 (54.0) 333 (46.0)  
 High School graduate 1,197 (34.6) 498 (41.6) 699 (58.4)   981 (22.3) 451 (46.0) 530 (54.0)  
 University graduate 594 (17.2) 211 (35.5) 383 (64.5)   198 (4.5) 71 (35.9) 127 (64.1)  
Income level        <.0001        <.0001
 Low 1,148 (33.2) 674 (58.7) 474 (41.3)   1,762 (40.1) 1,253 (71.1) 509 (28.9)  
 Middle Low 835 (24.1) 404 (48.4) 431 (51.6)   964 (21.9) 569 (59.0) 395 (41.0)  
 Middle High 812 (23.4) 325 (40.0) 487 (60.0)   934 (21.3) 479 (51.3) 455 (48.7)  
 High 668 (19.3) 242 (36.2) 426 (63.8)   733 (16.7) 338 (46.1) 395 (53.9)  
Marital status        <.0001        <.0001
 Married 3,171 (91.6) 1,448 (45.7) 1,723 (54.3)   3,031 (69.0) 1,659 (54.7) 1,372 (45.3)  
 Unmarried 292 (8.4) 197 (67.5) 95 (32.5)   1,362 (31.0) 980 (72.0) 382 (28.0)  
Economic activity        <.0001        <.0001
 Active 2,053 (59.3) 808 (39.4) 1,245 (60.6)   1,321 (30.1) 675 (51.1) 646 (48.9)  
 Inactive 1,410 (40.7) 837 (59.4) 573 (40.6)   3,072 (69.9) 1,964 (63.9) 1,108 (36.1)  
Region        <.0001        <.0001
 Urban 2,610 (75.4) 1,152 (44.1) 1,458 (55.9)   3,328 (75.8) 1,914 (57.5) 1,414 (42.5)  
 Rural 853 (24.6) 493 (57.8) 360 (42.2)   1,065 (24.2) 725 (68.1) 340 (31.9)  
Physical activity        <.0001        <.0001
 Yes 1,098 (31.7) 444 (40.4) 654 (59.6)   1,167 (26.6) 567 (48.6) 600 (51.4)  
 No 2,365 (68.3) 1,201 (50.8) 1,164 (49.2)   3,226 (73.4) 2,072 (64.2) 1,154 (35.8)  
Drinking        <.0001        <.0001
 Current 2,105 (60.8) 902 (42.9) 1,203 (57.1)   828 (18.8) 440 (53.1) 388 (46.9)  
 Past 563 (16.3) 339 (60.2) 224 (39.8)   184 (4.2) 122 (66.3) 62 (33.7)  
 Never 795 (23.0) 404 (50.8) 391 (49.2)   3,381 (77.0) 2,077 (61.4) 1,304 (38.6)  
Smoking        0.5092        <.0001
 Current 1,315 (38.0) 621 (47.2) 694 (52.8)   137 (3.1) 104 (75.9) 33 (24.1)  
 Past 918 (26.5) 460 (50.1) 458 (49.9)   43 (1.0) 29 (67.4) 14 (32.6)  
 Never 1,230 (35.5) 564 (45.9) 666 (54.1)   4,213 (95.9) 2,506 (59.5) 1,707 (40.5)  
BMI        <.0001        0.1892
 Overweight 650 (18.8) 257 (39.5) 393 (60.5)   1,051 (23.9) 626 (59.6) 425 (40.4)  
 Normal 2,695 (77.8) 1,309 (48.6) 1,386 (51.4)   3,168 (72.1) 1,893 (59.8) 1,275 (40.2)  
 Underweight 118 (3.4) 79 (66.9) 39 (33.1)   174 (4.0) 120 (69.0) 54 (31.0)  
Number of chronic diseases        <.0001        <.0001
 0 1,961 (56.6) 802 (40.9) 1,159 (59.1)   2,449 (55.7) 1,307 (53.4) 1,142 (46.6)  
 1 1,024 (29.6) 546 (53.3) 478 (46.7)   1,323 (30.1) 858 (64.9) 465 (35.1)  
 ≥2 478 (13.8) 297 (62.1) 181 (37.9)   621 (14.1) 474 (76.3) 147 (23.7)