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Table 3 Recommended tools for assessment of muscle health with cut-off values for the Singapore population

From: Singapore multidisciplinary consensus recommendations on muscle health in older adults: assessment and multimodal targeted intervention across the continuum of care

Parameter Recommended tool Recommended cut-off value for low muscle parameters Reference
Physical activity related to muscle SARC-F questionnaire Score of ≥4 out of 10, indicative of sarcopenia Malmstrom et al., 2016 [53]; AWGS 2019 [26]
Muscle strength Handgrip strength Men: < 28 kg
Women: < 18 kg
AWGS 2019 [26]
5-times CST test (surrogate measure) ≥10s for 5 rises Makizako et al., 2017 [54]
Muscle mass BIA (ASMI) Men: < 7.0 kg/m2
Women: < 5.7 kg/m2
AWGS 2019 [26]
DXA (ASMI) Men: < 7.0 kg/m2
Women: < 5.4 kg/m2
AWGS 2019 [26]
Calf circumference
(surrogate measure)
Men: < 34 cm
Women: < 33 cm
AWGS 2019 [26]
Physical performance Usual gait speed < 1.0 m/s AWGS 2019 [26]
5-times CST testa
(surrogate measure)
≥12 s as a proxy for low gait speed (< 1.0 m/s) AWGS 2019 [26]
  1. aThe use of a standardized protocol, such as the one from the American Academy or Orthotists & Prosthetists is recommended. Abbreviations: ASMI Appendicular skeletal mass index (ASM adjusted for height), AWGS Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, BIA Bioimpedance analysis, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, CST Chair Stand Test