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Table 1 Summary of sconsensus recommendations on screening and diagnosis for muscle health

From: Singapore multidisciplinary consensus recommendations on muscle health in older adults: assessment and multimodal targeted intervention across the continuum of care

Management of muscle health across the continuum of care in Singapore – screening and diagnosis for muscle health
1. The importance of muscle health (mass, strength, and function) should be emphasized across the continuum of care.
2. Muscle health should be prioritized in older adults (≥65 years), particularly in individuals with conditions who may be at risk of sarcopenia.
3. In most settings, screening for possible/probable sarcopenia or muscle impairment can be performed using the SARC-F questionnaire, followed by the assessment for low muscle strength via handgrip strength or the 5-times chair stand test with a cut-off of ≥10 s as surrogate measures of muscle strength.
4. Diagnosis of confirmed sarcopenia should be based on the presence of low muscle strength and low muscle mass; for severe sarcopenia, low physical performance is also present in addition to low muscle strength and low muscle mass.
5. In community and outpatient settings, bioimpedance analysis can be used to determine low muscle mass. In the absence of other alternatives, calf circumference can be used as a surrogate measure of muscle mass in patients without edema and not suspected to have sarcopenic obesity. In inpatient settings, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry can be used as the reference standard for measuring muscle mass.
6. Physical performance can be measured using the usual gait speed or by using the 5-times chair stand test with a cut-off of ≥12 s as a surrogate measure of gait speed of 1.0 m/s.