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Table 4 Nutrient intake and diet quality of older adults according to nut intake categories

From: Associations between nut intake, cognitive function and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in older adults in the United States: NHANES 2011-14

  Total Nut Intake Categories
Non-consumers
(0 g/d)
Low
(0.1 – 15.0 g/d)
Moderate
(15.1 – 30.0 g/d)
Met Recommendation
(>30 g/d)
P
n (%) 1848 814 (44.0) 669 (36.2) 182 (9.8) 183 (9.9) -
Energy (Kcal) 1813 (674) 1633 (636) w 1862 (635) x 1932 (652) x 2314 (697) y <0.001
Carbohydrate
g/day 225 (86.7) 204 (82.6) w 236 (83.6) x 237 (85.4) x 266 (93.2) y <0.001
%E 50.1 (8.6) 50.4 (9.3) w, x 51.1 (7.9) w 49.2 (7.7) x 45.7 (7.6) y <0.001
Protein
g/day 72.8 (29.2) 67.4 (28.6) w 73.4 (28.2) x 76.3 (27.7) x 91.3 (28.5) y <0.001
%E 16.4 (4.1) 16.9 (4.4) w, z 16.0 (3.9) x 16.0 (3.5) x, y 16.1 (3.6) x, z <0.001
Total fat
g/day 70.5 (33.6) 61.7 (31.3) w 70.9 (30.5) x 77.0 (31.6) x 102 (36.2) y <0.001
%E 34.3 (7.4) 33.3 (7.7) w 33.7 (6.7) w 35.7 (6.9) x 39.5 (6.1) y <0.001
PUFA (g/day) 16.9 (9.1) 14.4 (8.3) w 17.1 (8.5) x 18.5 (7.7) x 25.3 (10.0) y <0.001
MUFA (g/day) 25.2 (13.0) 21.4 (11.5) w 24.8 (11.4) x 28.2 (11.4) y 40.5 (15.5) z <0.001
SFA
g/day 22.3 (11.8) 20.3 (11.4) w 22.9 (11.3) x 23.7 (12.5) x 28.0 (12.7) y <0.001
%E 10.8 (3.2) 10.9 (3.4) 10.8 (3.0) 10.8 (3.2) 10.7 (2.9) 0.904
Fibre (g/day) 17.4 (9.2) 15.0 (8.7) w 17.7 (7.9) x 19.2 (9.0) x 25.5 (11.2) y <0.001
Alcohol (g/d) 10.9 (6.3, 16.8) 10.6 (5.6, 16.8) w 9.73 (6.4,16.2) w 12.8 (7.0,19.3) x 13.0 (7.0, 19.0) x <0.001
Cholesterol (mg/day) 231 (143, 346) 226 (141, 340) 236 (146, 353) 215 (138, 341) 241 (153, 350) 0.523
Sodium (mg/day) 3073 (1210) 2905 (1250) w 3168 (1174) x 3134 (1153) w, x 3413 (1098) x <0.001
HEI-2015 54.5 (12.3) 51.1 (11.5) w 54.9 (11.6) x 58.9 (12.1) y 64.1 (12.1) z <0.001
  1. Values are mean (standard deviation) for all nutrients, except for alcohol and cholesterol that are reported as median (1st quartile, 3rd quartile). Abbreviations: %E – percent of total energy intake, PUFA – polyunsaturated fat, MUFA – monounsaturated fat, SFA – saturated fat, HEI-2015 – Healthy Eating Index 2015 scores
  2. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests. Post-hoc comparisons were performed if overall statistical significance was achieved; values with different superscript letters were significantly different