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Table 3 Associations between nut intake and cognitive function of older adults in the US, stratified by NAFLD risk groups, using linear regression models that also included age, sex, race, Healthy Eating Index scores, history of cardiovascular disease, history of type 2 diabetes, meeting physical activity guidelines, household size, ration of family income-to-poverty, smoking status, and education status

From: Associations between nut intake, cognitive function and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in older adults in the United States: NHANES 2011-14

  NAFLD Risk Categories a
FLI<30 b
n=726
30FLI<60 b
n=483
FLI60 b
n=639
CERAD Total
 Nuts consumption group
  Low vs. non-consumers 0.10 (-0.89, 1.09) 0.98 (-0.15, 2.10) -0.73 (-1.81, 0.35)
  Moderate vs. non-consumers 0.90 (-0.28, 2.08) 0.12 3(-1.85, 2.09) 1.84 (0.34, 3.34)*
  Met vs. non-consumers -0.05 (-1.33, 1.23) 1.54 (0.12, 2.96)* 0.69 (-0.77, 2.15)
Delayed Recall
 Nuts consumption group
  Low vs. non-consumers -0.18 (-0.70, 0.34) 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00) -0.01 (-0.56, 0.54)
  Moderate vs. non-consumers 0.25 (-0.43, 0.94) -1.12 (-2.51, 0.28) 1.11 (0.32, 1.91)*
  Met vs. non-consumers -0.18 (-0.95, 0.58) 0.39 (-0.65, 1.44) 0.75 (-0.01, 1.51)
Animal Fluency
 Nuts consumption group
  Low vs. non-consumers 0.52 (-0.72, 1.75) 1.30 (-0.02, 2.62) 0.09 (-1.46, 1.65)
  Moderate vs. non-consumers 1.98 (0.28, 3.70)* 0.88 (-1.24, 3.00) 1.54 (-0.27, 3.34)
  Met vs. non-consumers 2.04 (0.71, 4.00)* 1.75 (-0.41, 3.91) 0.54 (-2.30, 3.39)
Digit-Symbol Substitution Test
 Nuts consumption group
  Low vs. non-consumers -0.14 (-3.54, 3.25) 1.96 (-1.65, 5.56) 0.28 (-2.83, 3.39)
  Moderate vs. non-consumers 3.69 (-0.96, 8.33) 6.94 (2.15, 11.70)* 1.42 (-4.00, 6.84)
  Met vs. non-consumers 2.63 (-2.18, 7.44) 1.78 (-3.23, 6.80) 1.24 (-3.03, 5.51)
  1. aValues are beta-coefficients and 95%CI, and significance indicated as * (p<0.05)
  2. bFatty Liver Index (FLI): Rules out NAFLD risk (FLI<30), inconclusive (FLI 30-60), likely presence of NAFLD (FLI>60)