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Table 5 Multinomial logistic regression of ZBI latent classes

From: Combining a variable‐centered and a person-centered analytical approach to caregiving burden – a holistic approach

  High caregiving burden group VS. low caregiving burden group Medium caregiving burden group VS. low caregiving burden group High caregiving burden group VS. medium caregiving burden group
  OR 95 % CI p OR 95 % CI p OR 95 % CI p
Age 0.97 0.93 1.02 0.234 0.99 0.96 1.03 0.611 0.98 0.94 1.02 0.413
Gender
 Male 0.55 0.10 2.95 0.487 0.17 0.03 0.93 0.041 3.26 0.42 25.16 0.257
 Female Ref     Ref     Ref    
Ethnicity
 Chinese Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Malay 0.40 0.11 1.53 0.181 0.53 0.19 1.50 0.231 0.76 0.21 2.79 0.679
 Indian & others 2.79 0.69 11.18 0.149 0.64 0.17 2.52 0.527 4.32 0.96 19.43 0.056
Education level
 Secondary or below (include N/O level) 0.33 0.13 0.86 0.022 0.54 0.25 1.20 0.133 0.61 0.26 1.45 0.265
  A level, polytechnic and other diploma 0.33 0.12 0.93 0.036 0.76 0.35 1.67 0.495 0.44 0.17 1.14 0.089
 Degree or above Ref     Ref     Ref    
Marital status
 Single Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Married/divorced/widowed 0.57 0.23 1.43 0.228 0.63 0.30 1.33 0.224 0.91 0.40 2.04 0.809
Employment status
 Unemployed/retired/housewife Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Employed 0.62 0.26 1.45 0.268 0.81 0.39 1.67 0.571 0.76 0.34 1.70 0.504
Relationship to the PWD
 Spouse Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Son 0.56 0.08 3.92 0.560 4.32 0.69 27.09 0.118 0.13 0.01 1.22 0.074
 Daughter 0.61 0.12 3.02 0.543 0.85 0.23 3.23 0.813 0.71 0.16 3.29 0.666
 Others 0.14 0.02 0.99 0.049 0.52 0.12 2.26 0.381 0.27 0.04 1.83 0.180
Living arrangement
 Living withith PWD 0.70 0.26 1.89 0.478 1.10 0.51 2.37 0.816 0.64 0.24 1.67 0.357
 Living separately from PWD Ref     Ref     Ref    
Domestic helper
 Have 1.60 0.66 3.88 0.302 1.13 0.56 2.29 0.733 1.41 0.61 3.26 0.420
 Don’t have Ref     Ref     Ref    
Received formal support during past month
 Yes Ref     Ref     Ref    
 No 0.52 0.23 1.16 0.110 0.87 0.44 1.70 0.678 0.59 0.28 1.28 0.183
Self-rated health
 Fair or poor Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Good or excellent 0.35 0.16 0.78 0.010 0.83 0.43 1.60 0.580 0.42 0.20 0.90 0.025
Weekly caregiving hours 1.01 1.002 1.02 0.022 1.001 0.99 1.01 0.772 1.01 1.001 1.02 0.029
Caregiving duration (months) 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.597 0.9980 0.99 1.00 0.403 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.895
ADL 1.49 1.12 1.99 0.006 1.19 0.95 1.49 0.123 1.25 0.96 1.63 0.102
IADL 0.85 0.63 1.15 0.285 1.02 0.81 1.29 0.871 0.83 0.62 1.12 0.221
MBP 1.46 1.27 1.67 < 0.001 1.24 1.11 1.39 < 0.001 1.17 1.04 1.33 0.012