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Table 4 Multiple linear regression of factors of ZBI

From: Combining a variable‐centered and a person-centered analytical approach to caregiving burden – a holistic approach

  Impact on Caregiver life Uncertainty over future Frustration/embarrassment
  β 95 % CI p β 95 % CI p β 95 % CI p
Age -0.06 -0.15 0.03 0.200 -0.06 -0.09 -0.02 0.003 -0.07 -0.13 -0.003 0.041
Gender
 Male -1.25 -4.63 2.12 0.466 -0.58 -1.97 0.80 0.408 -0.43 -2.83 1.97 0.725
 Female Ref     Ref     Ref    
Ethnicity
 Chinese Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Malay -3.56 -6.25 -0.88 0.010 -0.55 -1.65 0.55 0.325 -1.64 -3.56 0.27 0.091
 Indian & others 0.27 -2.87 3.40 0.868 0.33 -0.95 1.62 0.610 1.33 -0.90 3.56 0.242
Education level
 Secondary or below (include N/O level) -1.34 -3.27 0.60 0.175 -0.41 -1.20 0.39 0.313 -0.42 -1.80 0.96 0.550
  A level, polytechnic and other diploma -1.43 -3.45 0.59 0.165 -0.49 -1.32 0.34 0.245 -0.82 -2.26 0.62 0.265
 Degree or above Ref     Ref     Ref    
Marital status
 Single Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Married/divorced/widowed -1.38 -3.24 0.47 0.143 -0.37 -1.13 0.39 0.339 -0.52 -1.84 0.80 0.439
Employment status
 Unemployed/retired/housewife Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Employed 0.06 -1.74 1.86 0.947 -0.63 -1.37 0.10 0.092 -0.85 -2.12 0.43 0.194
Relationship to the PWD
 Spouse Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Son -0.06 -3.90 3.78 0.976 -1.68 -3.25 -0.10 0.037 -0.89 -3.62 1.85 0.524
 Daughter -1.01 -4.28 2.26 0.544 -1.88 -3.22 -0.54 0.006 -0.29 -2.62 2.03 0.803
 Others -3.09 -6.73 0.56 0.097 -2.35 -3.84 -0.85 0.002 -1.46 -4.06 1.14 0.269
Living arrangement
 Living withith PWD 0.51 -1.50 2.51 0.618 -0.79 -1.61 0.04 0.061 0.91 -0.52 2.34 0.209
 Living separately from PWD Ref     Ref     Ref    
Domestic helper
 Have -0.23 -2.00 1.55 0.803 0.47 -0.25 1.20 0.200 -0.22 -1.48 1.04 0.734
 Don’t have Ref     Ref     Ref    
Received formal support during past month
 Yes Ref     Ref     Ref    
 No -1.58 -3.28 0.11 0.066 -0.14 -0.83 0.55 0.691 -0.97 -2.18 0.23 0.114
Self-rated health
 Fair or poor Ref     Ref     Ref    
 Good or excellent -2.95 -4.58 -1.32 < 0.001 -0.99 -1.66 -0.32 0.004 -0.97 -2.13 0.19 0.100
Weekly caregiving hours 0.03 0.01 0.05 < 0.001 -0.0001 -0.01 0.01 0.973 0.001 -0.01 0.01 0.826
Caregiving duration (months) -0.01 -0.02 0.01 0.210 -0.0009 -0.01 0.01 0.769 0.001 -0.01 0.01 0.904
ADL 0.61 0.05 1.18 0.034 -0.03 -0.26 0.20 0.810 -0.01 -0.41 0.39 0.960
IADL -0.12 -0.71 0.47 0.688 -0.02 -0.26 0.22 0.862 0.12 -0.30 0.53 0.588
MBP 0.79 0.53 1.05 < 0.001 0.23 0.13 0.34 < 0.001 0.52 0.33 0.71 < 0.001