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Table 1 Descriptive statistics at baseline for the 69 patients

From: Ambient bright light treatment improved proxy-rated sleep but not sleep measured by actigraphy in nursing home patients with dementia: a placebo-controlled randomised trial

  Control group (n = 36) Intervention group (n = 33) Whole group (n = 69)
Age (mean, SD) 82.8 (7.9) 84.3 (6.2) 83.5 (7.1)
Female (%) 61 76 68
MMSE (n = 56), median (25th–75th percentile) 3.0 (1.0–7.0) 6.0 (2.0–10.0) 4.0 (1.0–9.5)
Dementia diagnoses, n (%)
 AD 20 (55.6) 18 (54.5) 38 (55.0)
 VD 2 (5.6) 2 (6.0) 4 (6.0)
 Mixed AD and VD 0 0 0
 LBD 1 (2.8) 0 1 (1.5)
 FTD 0 0 0
 PD 0 0 0
 Unknown dementia 10 (27.8) 11 (33.3) 21 (30.5)
 Other dementia 1 (2.8) 1 (3.0) 2 (3.0)
 No diagnosis* 2 (5.6) 1 (3.0) 3 (4.0)
NPI-NH total score (n = 69), median (25th–75th percentile) 12.5 (5.5–42.5) 24.0 (11.0–42.0) 21.0 (6.0–42.0)
ADL (n = 69) (mean, SD) 18.4 (4.7) 17.1 (5.1) 17.8 (4.9)
FAST (n = 67), median (25th–75th percentile) 6.0 (6.0–7.0) 6.0 (6.0–6.0) 6.0 (6.0–6.0)
CCI (n = 69), median (25th–75th percentile) 1.0 (1.0–2.0) 2.0 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (1.0–2.0)
No. of drugs (mean, SD) 6.7 (3.0) 6.5 (2.7) 6.7 (2.8)
No. of psychotropic drugs¤, median (25th–75th percentile) 3.0 (1.3–3.8) 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0)
Any psychotropic, n (%) 34 (94%) 31 (94%) 65 (94%)
No. of sedatives§, median (25th–75th percentile) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
Any sedatives, n (%) 3 (8%) 6 (18%) 9 (13%)
  1. AD Alzheimer’s Disease, ADL Activities of Daily Living, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, FAST Functional Assessment Staging, FTD Frontotemporal dementia, LBD Lewy Body dementia, MMSE Mini Mental State Examiner, NPI-NH Neuropsychiatric inventory – nursing home version, PD Parkinson’s dementia, VD Vascular dementia
  2. Note: Medians and the 25th and 75th percentiles are presented for non-normal data. Differences at baseline were evaluated using the Student’s t-test for parametric data and the Mann-Whitney U test for non-parametric data (marked in italics). The Chi-square probability distribution was used to analyse categorical data
  3. *These patients were still included as their scores on the Mini Mental State Examination and the Functional Assessment Staging suggested moderate and severe dementia. In addition, clinically trained researchers concluded that they with high probability suffered from dementia according to the DSM-5 criteria
  4. ¤Psychotropic drugs include all drugs coded as N in the ATC system
  5. §Sedatives include all N05C drugs, including z-hypnotics