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Table 1 Socio-economic profile of older adults and percentage of older adults who faced any violence by background characteristics in India

From: Socio-economic inequality in the prevalence of violence against older adults – findings from India

Variables Sample Percentage Any violence (%) p-value
Age (years)     0.008
 60–69 5890 61.8 10.7  
 70–79 2612 27.4 10.7  
 80+ 1036 10.9 15.4  
Sex     0.029
 Men 4525 47.4 10.8  
 Women 5014 52.6 11.5  
Educational status     0.001
  None 4871 51.1 13.6  
 Below 5 years 1954 20.5 11.8  
 6 to 10 years 2136 22.4 6.6  
 11+ years 578 6.1 6.0  
Marital status     0.001
 Not in union 3759 39.4 12.3  
 Currently in union 5780 60.6 10.5  
Living arrangement     0.001
 Alone 561 5.9 17.6  
 With spouse 1521 15.9 12.2  
 With children 6717 70.4 10.6  
 Others 740 7.8 9.6  
Working status     0.001
 No 7229 75.8 9.9  
 Yes 2310 24.2 15.2  
Contribute money for household expenditure     0.034
 No income 4110 43.1 10.7  
 Yes 5013 52.6 11.2  
 No 416 4.4 15.4  
Wealth quintile     0.001
 Poorest 2251 23.6 17.3  
 Poorer 2114 22.2 13.1  
 Middle 1970 20.7 8.4  
 Richer 1771 18.6 8.0  
 Richest 1433 15.0 6.4  
Religion     0.187
 Hindu 7570 79.4 11.1  
 Muslim 671 7.0 10.0  
 Sikh 898 9.4 12.4  
 Others 400 4.2 12.9  
Caste     0.045
 Scheduled Caste 1979 20.7 12.0  
 Scheduled Tribe 531 5.6 14.0  
 Other Backward Class 3507 36.8 7.9  
 Others 3522 36.9 13.5  
Place of residence     0.001
 Rural 7042 73.8 12.2  
 Urban 2497 26.2 8.3  
State     0.001
 Himachal Pradesh 1470 15.4 11.5  
 Punjab 1351 14.2 10.4  
 West Bengal 1127 11.8 7.5  
 Orissa 1453 15.2 9.2  
 Maharashtra 1380 14.5 34.3  
 Kerala 1356 14.2 2.9  
 Tamil Nadu 1403 14.7 1.9  
Total 9539 100 11.2