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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics

From: Social and physical factors related to depression in the older population of Siberia, Russia: a cross-sectional study

   N = 422
Total N = 422 Normal (GDS < 6), n = 304 Depression (GDS ≥ 6), n = 118 p
Young Old Adults (60–75) 331 (78.4%) 240 (78.9%) 91 (77.1%) .694
Older Old Adults (76–93) 91 (21.6%) 64 (21.1%) 27 (22.9%) .694
Gender
 Male 226 (53.6%) 163 (53.6%) 63 (53.4%) 1.00
 Female 196 (46.4%) 141 (46.4%) 55 (46.6%)
BMI (mean ± SD) 27.9 ± 4.9 27.4 ± 5.6 27.2 ± 4.6 .576†
PCS (SF-8) (mean ± SD) 39.9 ± 8.2 35.1 ± 8.7 36.4 ± 9.3 .205†
MCS (SF-8) (mean ± SD) 47.6 ± 6.6 46.7 ± 8.0 46.2 ± 7.2 .533†
Diabetes
 Yes 54 (12.8%) 34 (11.2%) 20 (16.9%) .143
 No 368 (87.2%) 270 (88.8%) 98 (83.1%)
Asthma
 Yes 19 (4.5%) 9 (3.0%) 10 (8.5%) .019*
 No 403 (95.5%) 295 (97.1%) 108 (91.5%)
Sleep Disorder (PSQI 5/6)
 Yes 257 185 72 1.00
 No 165 119 46
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
 Yes 94 (22.3%) 74 (24.3%) 20 (16.9%) .118
 No 328 (77.7%) 230 (75.7%) 98 (83.1%)
Current Drinking Status
 Yes 305 (72.3%) 222 (73.0%) 83 (70.3%) .628
 No 117 (27.7%) 82 (27.0%) 35 (29.7%)
Currently Smoking or Smoked in the Past
 Yes 139 (32.9%) 91 (29.9%) 48 (40.7%) .038*
 No 283 (67.1%) 213 (70.1%) 70 (59.3%)
Currently Working or Self-employed
 Yes 99 (23.5%) 86 (28.3%) 13 (11.0%) .000**
 No 323 (76.5%) 218 (71.7%) 105 (89.0%)
Monthly Income (ruble)
  ≤ 8524 60 45 15 .644
  > 8524 362 259 103
Kid(s)
 Yes 102 (24.2%) 67 (22.0%) 35 (29.7%) .128
 No 320 (75.8%) 237 (78.0%) 83 (70.3%)
Spouse
 Yes 234 (55.4%) 157 (51.6%) 77 (65.2%) .012*
 No 188 (44.6%) 147 (48.4%) 41 (34.3%)
Living Alone
 Yes 121 (28.7%) 94 (30.9%) 27 (22.9%) .119
 No 301 (71.3%) 210 (69.1%) 91 (77.1%)
Daily Communication with Others
  > 3 times 218 (51.6%) 179 (58.9%) 39 (33.0%) .000**
  ≤ 2 times 204 (48.4%) 125 (41.1%) 79 (67.0%)
Favorite Person for Talk: Spouse
 Yes 145 (34.4%) 104 (34.2%) 41 (34.8%) .910
 No 277 (65.6%) 200 (65.8%) 77 (65.2%)
Favorite Person for Talk: Kids
 Yes 114 (27.0%) 79 (26.0%) 35 (29.7%) .465
 No 308 (73.0%) 225 (74.0%) 83 (70.3%)
Favorite Person for Talk: Siblings
 Yes 16 (3.8%) 14 (4.6%) 2 (1.7%) .255
 No 406 (96.2%) 290 (95.3%) 116 (98.3%)
Favorite Person for Talk: Relatives
 Yes 52 (12.3%) 42 (13.8%) 10 (8.5%) .186
 No 370 (87.7%) 262 (86.2%) 108 (91.5%)
Favorite Person for Talk: Friends
 Yes 63 (14.9%) 54 (17.8%) 9 (7.6%) .009*
 No 359 (85.1%) 259 (85.2%) 109 (92.4%)
Weekly Walking
  ≥ 4 days 323 (76.5%) 241 (79.3%) 82 (69.5%) .040*
  < 4 days 99 (23.5%) 63 (20.7%) 36 (30.5%)
  1. Note: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 χ2 test (unpaired), †: Student’s T-test mean ± SD. BMI Body Mass Index, PCS Physical Component Summery of Short Form-8, MCS Mental Component Summery of Short Form-8, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index