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Table 3 Association between caregiver type and all-cause mortality among married and widowed Chinese older adults with ADL disability

From: Association between primary caregiver type and mortality among Chinese older adults with disability: a prospective cohort study

   Model 1 Model 2
Incidence per 1000 PYs
(95% CI)
HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
  Married (N = 360)
Spouse 198.9 (169.1, 233.9) Ref.   Ref.  
Son/daughter-in-law 345.7 (279.2, 428.1) 1.38 (1.04, 1.84) .022 1.41 (1.03, 1.91) .029
Daughter/son-in-law 302.2 (213.7, 427.3) 1.27 (0.84, 1.93) .263 1.33 (0.89, 2.10) .194
  Widowed (N = 3918)
Son/daughter-in-law 352.9 (336.9, 369.7) Ref.   Ref.  
Daughter/son-in-law 294.0 (270.8, 319.2) 0.83 (0.76, 0.91) <.001 0.88 (0.81, 0.96) .003
Grandchildren 316.1 (280.1, 356.7) 0.85 (0.75, 0.97) .013 0.86 (0.76, 0.97) .015
Domestic helper 301.0 (255.7, 354.4) 0.81 (0.68, 0.95) .013 0.85 (0.71, 1.01) .070
  1. Abbreviations: PY Person-year, HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, ADL Activity of daily living
  2. Notes: Other caregiver types (including other relatives, neighbors, social services, and nobody) were excluded due to small sample sizes
  3. Model 1: Adjusted for age, sex, and number of ADL disability
  4. Model 2: Adjusted for validated age, sex, number of ADL disability, residence (urban vs. rural), education years, financial independence (yes vs. no), self-rated health (very good/good/so-so/bad/very bad), number of chronic conditions, cognitive impaired (MMSE< 18), and caregiving quality