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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of community-dwelling Chinese older adults with ADL disability by caregiver type

From: Association between primary caregiver type and mortality among Chinese older adults with disability: a prospective cohort study

  Spouse Son or daughter-in-law Daughter or son-in-law Grand children Domestic helper P-value
N = 182 N = 2536 N = 899 N = 406 N = 255  
  Count (%) or Means ± SD  
Age, years 90.1 ± 5.8 97.5 ± 5.7 97.7 ± 5.7 99.6 ± 4.8 97.3 ± 5.7 <.001
Female 40 (21.5) 1908 (75.2) 703 (78.2) 332 (81.8) 185 (72.6) <.001
Urban residence 85 (45.7) 913 (36.0) 522 (58.1) 187 (46.1) 218 (85.5) <.001
Education, years 1.9 ± 3.1 0.8 ± 2.1 1.0 ± 2.5 0.7 ± 2.1 2.7 ± 4.3 <.001
Financial independence 116 (62.4) 1947 (76.8) 684 (76.1) 312 (76.9) 204 (80.0) <.001
Co-residence (vs. living alone) 184 (98.9) 2421 (95.5) 855 (95.1) 285 (94.8) 220 (86.3) <.001
Living with children 81 (43.6) 2296 (89.7) 810 (90.2) 369 (91.1) 184 (72.2) <.001
Hypertension 43 (23.1) 387 (15.3) 145 (16.1) 46 (11.3) 60 (23.5) <.001
Diabetes 8 (4.3) 41 (1.6) 17 (1.9) 8 (2.0) 10 (3.9) <.001
Heart disease 25 (13.4) 183 (7.2) 129 (14.4) 32 (7.9) 49 (19.2) <.001
Cerebrovascular disease 40 (21.5) 217 (8.6) 76 (8.5) 29 (7.1) 327 (10.6) <.001
Pulmonary disease 35 (18.8) 259 (10.2) 121 (13.5) 52 (12.8) 39 (15.3) <.001
Cancer 3 (1.6) 9 (0.4) 7 (0.8) 3 (0.7) 1 (0.4) <.001
Arthritis 41 (22.04) 463 (18.3) 166 (18.5) 100 (24.6) 69 (26.1) <.001
Parkinson’s disease 4 (2.2) 21 (0.8) 8 (0.9) 2 (0.5) 1 (0.4) <.001
Number of chronic diseases 1.1 (1.1) 0.6 (0.9) 0.7 (1.0) 0.7 (0.9) 1.0 (1.1) <.001
Good/very good self-reported health 40 (21.5) 784 (30.9) 267 (29.7) 107 (26.4) 60 (23.5) <.001
Number of ADL:
 Difficulty in 1 ADL 82 (44.1) 929 (36.6) 365 (40.6) 151 (37.2) 64 (25.1) <.001
 Difficulty in 2 ADL 27 (14.5) 386 (15.2) 116 (12.9) 53 (13.0) 24 (9.4)
 Difficulty in 3+ ADL 73 (41.4) 1221 (48.2) 418 (46.5) 206 (49.8) 167 (65.5)
Cognitive impairment 78 (42.2) 1816 (71.8) 583 (64.9) 301 (74.3) 159 (62.4) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, ADL Activity of daily living
  2. Pulmonary disease: including bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, or pneumonia
  3. Cognitive impairment: mini-mental state examination score < 18