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Table 2 Sociodemographic characteristics of total combined adult patient sample, for patients aged ≥65 and < 65 years at the patient level

From: The profile of older adults seeking chiropractic care: a secondary analysis

  Total combined adult patient sample
(n = 5660)
≥65 years old patients
(n = 897)
< 65 years old patients
(n = 4763)
Comparisona between
≥65 years old and < 65 years old
Source
 COAST 3299 (58.3%) 421 (46.9%) 2878 (60.4%) χ2 = 17.7 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 O-COAST 2361 (41.7%) 476 (53.1%) 1885 (39.6%)  
Number of encounters per patient
 1 4898 (86.5%) 777 (86.6%) 4121 (86.5%) χ2 = 1.1 df = 2 p = 0.59
 2 556 (9.8%) 93 (10.4%) 463 (9.7%)  
 3+ 206 (3.7%) 27 (3.0%) 179 (3.8%)  
New Patient (n = 4845)
 Yes 318 (6.6%) 26 (3.3%) 292 (7.2%) χ2 = 22.6 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 No 4527 (93.4%) 771 (96.7%) 3756 (92.8%)  
Sex (n = 5554)
 Male 2320 (41.8%) 367 (41.4%) 1953 (41.8%) χ2 = 0.08 df = 1 p = 0.77
 Female 3234 (58.2%) 519 (58.6%) 2715 (58.2%)  
Age
 18–24 334 (5.9%) 334 (7.0%)  
 25–54 3386 (59.8%) 3386 (71.1%)  
 55–64 1043 (18.4%) 1043 (21.9%)  
 65–74 619 (10.9%) 619 (69.0%)  
 75–84 232 (4.1%) 232 (25.9%)  
 85+ 46 (0.8%) 46 (5.1%)  
BMI (n = 5457)
 Mean (range; SD) 26.9 (14.6–52.3; 5.2) 27.2 (16.7–48.9; 5.1) 26.9 (14.6–52.3; 5.2) t = 1.33 df = 87 p = 0.19
Comorbidities
 Cancer 63 (1.1%) 28 (3.1%) 35 (0.7%) χ2 = 70.9 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 Cardiovascular 493 (8.7%) 217 (24.2%) 276 (5.8%) χ2 = 334.1 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 Diabetes 171 (3.0%) 62 (6.9%) 109 (2.3%) χ2 = 37.6 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 Gastrointestinal 92 (1.6%) 24 (2.7%) 68 (2.7%) χ2 = 11.6 df = 1 p = 0.0006
 Genitourinary 40 (0.7%) 9 (1.0%) 31 (0.7%) χ2 = 1.4 df = 1 p = 0.2
 Musculoskeletal 288 (5.1%) 129 (14.4%) 159 (3.3%) χ2 = 177.3 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 Neurological 52 (0.9%) 22 (2.5%) 30 (0.6%) χ2 = 19.4 df = 1 p < 0.0001
 Psychological 129 (2.3%) 18 (2.0%) 111 (2.3%) χ2 = 0.6 df = 1 p = 0.4
 Respiratory 113 (2.0%) 27 (3.0%) 86 (1.8%) χ2 = 5.8 df = 1 p = 0.02
 Other 154 (2.7%) 28 (3.1%) 126 (2.7%) χ2 = 0.5 df = 1 p = 0.5
# Comorbidity Categories
 0 4413 (78.0%) 484 (54.0%) 3929 (82.5%) χ2 = 311.6 df = 5 p < 0.0001
 1 791 (14.0%) 230 (25.6%) 561 (11.8%)  
 2 291 (5.1%) 108 (12.0%) 183 (3.8%)  
 3 99 (1.8%) 46 (5.1%) 53 (1.1%)  
 4 33 (0.6%) 14 (1.6%) 19 (0.4%)  
 5 or more 33 (0.6%) 15 (1.7%) 18 (0.4%)  
Smoking statusc (n = 2987)
 Never smoked 1796 (60.1%) 262 (55.0%) 1534 (61.1%) χ2 = 75.2 df = 3 p < 0.0001
 Used to smoke 834 (27.9%) 194 (40.8%) 640 (25.5%)  
 Smoke occasionally 142 (4.8%) 7 (1.5%) 135 (5.4%)  
 Smoke regularly 215 (7.2%) 13 (2.7%) 202 (8.0%)  
Physical activityc (n = 2986)
 Never 918 (30.7%) 213 (44.8%) 705 (28.1%) χ2 = 62.5 df = 5 p < 0.0001
 Once a week 571 (19.1%) 86 (18.1%) 485 (19.3%)  
 2–3 x per week 869 (29.1%) 95 (20.0%) 774 (30.8%)  
 4–6 x per week 459 (15.4%) 45 (9.5%) 414 (16.5%)  
 Once a day 121 (4.1%) 26 (5.5%) 95 (3.8%)  
  > Once a day 48 (1.6%) 11 (2.3%) 37 (1.5%)  
Occupation (n = 5314)
 Employed 3791 (71.3%) 161 (18.8%) 3630 (81.4%)  
 Home Duties 375 (7.1%) 40 (4.7%) 335 (7.5%)  
 Unemployed 36 (0.7%) 36 (0.8%)  
 Retired 919 (17.3%) 656 (76.6%) 263 (5.9%)  
 Student 193 (3.6%) 193 (4.3%)  
Patients referred fromb:
 GP/FP (n = 4217) 280 (6.6%) 64 (9.2%) 216 (6.1%) χ2 = 4.0, df = 1, p = 0.046
 Other DC (n = 4237) 300 (7.1%) 57 (8.3%) 243 (6.9%) χ2 = 1.5, df = 1, p = 0.22
 Patient (n = 4715) 2421 (51.4%) 366 (51.1%) 2055 (51.4%) χ2 = 0.01, df = 1, p = 0.92
 Other (n = 4200) 917 (21.8%) 124 (18.4%) 793 (22.5%) χ2 = 2.2, df = 1, p = 0.14
  1. aPearson χ2 test for categorical variables, t-test for means, all accounting for clustering within primary sampling unit of chiropractor
  2. bIndication of multiple referral sources was possible
  3. cSmoking Status and Physical Activity were collected on half of the encounter forms by design