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Table 3 Self-confidence to live alone by the characteristics of participants (N = 936)

From: Factors Related to Self-Confidence to Live Alone in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

Variables Categories Self-confidence to live alone
Mean ± SD t (p)
General characteristics
 Age (years) 65–74 6.78 ± 2.92 1.363 (.173)
≥ 75 6.49 ± 3.05  
 Sex Male 6.40 ± 2.91 1.098 (.272)
Female 6.65 ± 3.04  
 Educational level < Middle school 6.44 ± 3.14 2.360 (.019)
≥ Middle school 6.91 ± 2.69  
 Religion Yes 6.61 ± 2.95 0.271 (.787)
No 6.55 ± 3.13  
 Participation in economic activity <  3–4 times/week 6.40 ± 3.04 3.346 (.001)
≥ 3–4 times/week 7.15 ± 2.85  
 Wall cracks at home Yes 6.13 ± 3.14 2.370 (.018)
No 6.71 ± 2.96  
 Mould exposure at home Yes 5.81 ± 3.12 5.242 (< .001)
No 6.92 ± 2.90  
Health-related characteristics
 Disability Yes 6.38 ± 3.13 1.068 (.286)
No 6.64 ± 2.98  
 IADL Independent 6.89 ± 2.87 6.618 (< .001)
Partially or totally dependent 5.26 ± 3.23  
 Depression No 7.96 ± 2.32 14.051 (< .001)
Yes 5.50 ± 3.05  
Social characteristics
 Participation in social activity <  3–4 times/week 6.30 ± 3.03 3.256 (.001)
≥ 3–4 times/week 6.94 ± 2.94  
 Interactions with family members <  1–2 times/month 5.78 ± 3.14 5.168 (< .001)
≥ 1–2 times/month 6.92 ± 2.89  
 Interactions with neighbours <  1–2 times/month 5.71 ± 3.49 3.333 (.001)
≥ 1–2 times/month 6.75 ± 2.89  
 Public service utilisation None 6.95 ± 2.82 4.062 (< .001)
≥ 1 6.15 ± 3.17  
 Social support Good or Fair 7.31 ± 2.58 8.760 (< .001)
Poor 5.56 ± 3.27  
 Loneliness ≤ Moderate 7.14 ± 2.69 8.599 (< .001)
≥ Moderately high 5.16 ± 3.31  
  1. SD Standard deviation, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living