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Table 2 Health-related and social characteristics of participants (N = 936)

From: Factors Related to Self-Confidence to Live Alone in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

Variables Categories n (%) Mean ± SD Range
Health-related characteristics
 Disability Yes 187 (20.0)   
No 749 (80.0)   
 IADL Independent 762 (81.4) 10.49 ± 1.54 10–24
Partially dependent 148 (15.8)   
Dependent 26 (2.8)   
 Number of comorbidities None 41 (4.4) 3.94 ± 2.38 0–12
≥ 1 895 (95.6)   
 Depression Normal 414 (44.3) 5.89 ± 4.30 0–15
Depression 522 (55.7)   
 Falls (times/year) None 692 (73.9) 0.52 ± 1.40 0–20
1 142 (15.2)   
2 48 (5.2)   
≥ 3 54 (5.7)   
 ED visits (times/year) None 831 (88.8) 0.16 ± 0.66 0–14
1 82 (8.8)   
2 14 (1.5)   
≥ 3 9 (0.9)   
Social characteristics
 Participation in social activity ≥ 3–4 times/week 425 (45.4)   
≥ 1–2 times/week 218 (23.3)   
≥ 1–2 times/month 43 (4.6)   
None 250 (26.7)   
 Interactions with family members ≥ 1–2 times/week 438 (46.9)   
≥ 1–2 times/month 225 (24.0)   
≥ 1–2 times/quarter 75 (8.0)   
≥ 1–2 times/year 89 (9.5)   
None 109 (11.6)   
 Interactions with neighbours ≥ 1–2 times/week 698 (74.6)   
≥ 1–2 times/month 97 (10.4)   
≥ 1–2 times/quarter 15 (1.6)   
≥ 1–2 times/year 19 (2.0)   
None 107 (11.4)   
 Public service utilisation Yes 423 (45.2)   
No 513 (54.8)   
 Social support Good 202 (21.6) 3.71 ± 1.94 0–6
Fair 349 (37.3)   
Poor 385 (41.1)   
 Loneliness High 71 (7.6) 41.89 ± 13.57 20–80
Moderately high 189 (20.2)   
Moderate 342 (36.5)   
Low 334 (35.7)   
  1. SD Standard deviation, ED Emergency department